This product is no longer sold by Raintree Nutrition, Inc. See the main product page for more information on why. Click on one of the product search links in the left margin of this page to find other available products. You can also see the rainforest products page to find other companies selling rainforest herbal supplements or rainforest plants in general.
N-TENSE combines the rainforest's most potent and powerful plants into one synergistic formula. These power plants of the rainforest have been independently documented around the world with biological actions against cancer (see published independent reseach below).* This unique formula contains 50% graviola combined with 7 other plants that have similar properties and actions as graviola. Most find this unique blend of rainforest plants to have synergistic actions and provide better results than graviola alone.This product was featured in three articles by the Health Sciences Institute:
For more information on the individual ingredients in N-Tense, follow the links provided below to the plant database files in the Tropical Plant Database. More information can also be found in the new Anti-Cancerous Guide.
Ingredients: A synergistic blend of graviola, mullaca, guacatonga, espinheira santa, bitter melon, vassourinha, mutamba, and cat’s claw. To prepare this natural remedy yourself: use 10 parts graviola, 2 parts mullaca, 2 parts guacatonga, 2 parts espinheira santa, and 1 part each of bitter melon, vassourinha, mutamba and cat's claw. To make a small amount... 1 part could be a tablespoon (you'd have 20 tablespoons of the blended herbal formula). For larger amounts use 1 part as one ounce or one cup or one pound. Combine all the herbs together well. The formula can then be stuffed into capsules or brewed into tea, stirred into juice or other liquid, or taken however you'd like.Suggested Use: Take 2-3 grams by weight (or about 1 1/2 teaspoon by volume) three times daily, or as directed by a healthcare professional.
Graviola (Annona muricata)
Graviola contains over 100 Annonaceous acetogenins which have shown in laboratory studies to be selectively cytotoxic to cancer cells without toxicity to healthy cells. Many published studies report that these acetogenins have demonstrated selective cytotoxicity to tumor cells with as little as 1 part per million.
Anticancerous & Antitumor Actions:
Indrawati, L., et al. "The effect of an Annona muricata leaf extract on nutritional status and cytotoxicity in colorectal cancer: a randomized controlled trial." Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr. 2017; 26(4): 606-612. [Free full article]
Rady, I., et al. “Anticancer properties of graviola (Annona muricata): A comprehensive mechanistic review.” Oxid. Med. Cell. Longev. 2018 Jul; 2018: 1826170. [Free PMC Article]
Quílez, A., et al. “Potential therapeutic applications of the genus Annona: Local and traditional uses and pharmacology.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2018 Oct; 225: 244-270.
Yajid, A. et al. “Potential Benefits of Annona muricata in Combating Cancer: A Review. Malays. J. Med. Sci. 2018 Feb; 25(1): 5-15. [PMC free article]
Qazi, A., et al. “Emerging therapeutic potential of graviola and its constituents in cancers.” Carcinogenesis. 2018 Apr; 39(4): 522-533.
Gavamukulya, Y., et al. “Annona muricata: Is the natural therapy to most disease conditions including cancer growing in our backyard? A systematic review of its research history and future prospects.” Asian Pac. J. Trop. Med. 2017 Sept; 10(9): 835-848 [ScienceDirect free article]
Moghadamtousi, S., et al. “Annona muricata (Annonaceae): A review of its traditional uses, isolated acetogenins and biological activities.” Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015 Jul; 16(7): 15625-58. [PMC Free article]
Mangal, M., et al. “Acetogenins as Potential Anticancer Agents.” Anticancer Agents Med. Chem. 2015; 16(2): 138-59.
Ma, C., et al. “Non-targeted metabolomic analysis on multidrug resistance hepatocellular carcinoma cell and reversal effect of annonaceous acetogenins.” J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 2019 Feb; 164: 489-495. Sabapati, M., et al. "Solid lipid nanoparticles of Annona muricata fruit extract: formulation, optimization and in vitro cytotoxicity studies." Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm. 2019 Jan 19:1-10.
Torres, C., Effect of Morinda citrifolia and Annona muricata on Erhlich tumor cells in Swiss albino mice and in vitro fibroblast cells." J. Med. Food. 2019 Jan; 22(1): 46-51.
Kim, J., "Annona muricata leaf extract triggered intrinsic apoptotic pathway to attenuate cancerous features of triple negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231." Cells. Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2018 Jul; 2018: 7972916.
Rady, I., et al. "Anticancer properties of graviola (Annona muricata): A comprehensive mechanistic review." Oxid. Med. Cell Longev. 2018 Jul; 2018: 1826170.
Sánchez-Navarro, M., et al. "Cytotoxic and bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles obtained by green synthesis method using Annona muricata aqueous extract and functionalized with 5-Fluorouracil." Bioinorg. Chem. Appl. 2018 Oct; 2018: 6506381.
Moreau, D., et al. "[Self medication with Annona muricata L. (corossol) as an anti-cancer agent in Reunion]." Rev. Mal. Respir. 2018 Nov; 35(9): 948-955.
Abdul Wahab, S., et at. "Exploring the leaves of Annona muricata L. as a source of potential anti-inflammatory and anticancer agents." Front. Pharmacol. 2018 Jun; 9: 661.
Chamcheu, J., "Graviola (Annona muricata) exerts anti-proliferative, anti-clonogenic and pro-apoptotic effects in human non-melanoma skin cancer UW-BCC1 and A431 cells in vitro: involvement of hedgehog signaling." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018 Jun; 19(6).
Dawood, H., "Integrated in silico-in vitro strategy for screening of some traditional Egyptian plants for human aromatase inhibitors." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2018 Oct; 224: 359-372.
Rosdi, M., et al. "Molecular docking studies of bioactive compounds from Annona muricata Linn as potential inhibitors for Bcl-2, Bcl-w and Mcl-1 antiapoptotic proteins." Apoptosis. 2018 Jan; 23(1): 27-40.
Ma, C., et al. “Metabolomics analysis of the potential anticancer mechanism of annonaceous acetogenins on a multidrug resistant mammary adenocarcinoma cell.” Anal. Biochem. 2018 Jul 15; 553: 1-6.
Roduan, M., "Annona muricata leaves extracts prevent DMBA/TPA-induced skin tumorigenesis via modulating antioxidants enzymes system in ICR mice." Biomed. Pharmacother. 2017 Oct; 94: 481-488.
Abdullah, M., et al. "The value of caspase-3 after the application of Annona muricata leaf extract in COLO-205 colorectal cancer cell line." Gastroenterol. Res. Pract. 2017; 2017: 4357165.
Morosetti, G., "Ellagic acid and Annona muricata in the chemoprevention of HPV-related pre-neoplastic lesions of the cervix." Oncol Lett. 2017 Mar; 13(3): 1880-1884.
Yap, C. et al. "Annonacin exerts antitumor activity through induction of apoptosis and extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibition." Pharmacognosy Res. 2017 Oct-Dec; 9(4): 378-383.
Foster, K., et al. "Reliance on medicinal plant therapy among cancer patients in Jamaica." Cancer Causes Control. 2017 Nov; 28(11): 1349-1356.
Tundis, R., "Annona species (Annonaceae): a rich source of potential antitumor agents? Ann. N. Y Acad Sci. 2017 Jun; 1398(1): 30-36.
Prabhakaran, K., et al. "Polyketide natural products, acetogenins from graviola (Annona muricata L), its biochemical, cytotoxic activity and various analyses through computational and bio-programming methods." Curr. Pharm. Des. 2016; 22(34): 5204-5210.
Sun, L., et al. "Isolation of three new Anonaceous acetogenins from graviola fruit (Annona muricata) and their anti-proliferation on human prostate cancer cell PC-3." Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2016 Sep; 26(17): 4382-5.
Clement, Y., et al. "Herbal remedies and functional foods used by cancer patients attending specialty oncology clinics in Trinidad." BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 2016 Oct; 16(1): 399
Kuete, V., et al. "Cytotoxicity of methanol extracts of Annona muricata, Passiflora edulis and nine other Cameroonian medicinal plants towards multi-factorial drug-resistant cancer cell lines. Springerplus. 2016 Sep; 5(1): 1666.
Najmuddin, S., et al. "Anti-cancer effect of Annona muricata Linn leaves crude extract (AMCE) on breast cancer cell line." BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 2016 Aug; 16(1): 311.
Prabhakaran, K., "Polyketide natural products, acetogenins from graviola (Annona muricata L), its biochemical, cytotoxic activity and various analyses through computational and bio-programming methods." Curr. Pharm. Des. 2016; 22(34): 5204-5210.
Liu, N., et al. "Functional proteomic analysis reveals that the ethanol extract of Annona muricata L. induces liver cancer cell apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2016 Aug; 189: 210-7.
Antony, P., and Vijayan, R. "Acetogenins from Annona muricata as potential inhibitors of antiapoptotic proteins: a molecular modeling study." Drug Des. Devel. Ther. 2016 Apr; 10: 1399-410.
Shi, Y., et al. "[Structure activity relationship of annonaceous acetogenins against multidrug resistant human lung cancer cell line A549/Taxol in vitro]." Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2016 May; 41(10): 1884-1888.
Liaw, C., et al. “Acetogenins from Annonaceae.” Prog. Chem. Org. Nat. Prod. 2016; 101: 113-230.
Qian, J., et al. “Annonaceous acetogenins reverses drug resistance of human hepatocellular carcinoma BEL-7402/5-FU and HepG2/ADM cell lines.” Int. J. Clin. Exp. Pathol. 2015 Sep; 8(9): 11934-44.
Magadi, V. "Evaluation of cytotoxicity of aqueous extract of graviola leaves on squamous cell carcinoma cell-25 cell lines by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-Yl) -2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and determination of percentage of cell inhibition at G2M phase of cell cycle by flow cytometry: An in vitro study." Contemp. Clin. Dent. 2015 Oct-Dec; 6(4): 529-33.
Yang, C., et al. "Synergistic interactions among flavonoids and acetogenins in graviola (Annona muricata) leaves confer protection against prostate cancer." Carcinogenesis. 2015 Jun; 36(6): 656-65.
Zorofchian, S., et al. "The chemopotential effect of Annona muricata leaves against azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in rats and the apoptotic effect of acetogenin annomuricin E in HT-29 cells: a bioassay-guided approach." PLoS One. 2015 Apr; 10(4): e0122288.
Asare, G., et al. "Antiproliferative activity of aqueous leaf extract of Annona muricata L. on the prostate, BPH-1 cells, and some target genes." Integr. Cancer Ther. 2015 Jan; 14(1): 65-74.
Yuan, F., et al. “Structure-activity relationships of diverse ACGs against multidrug resistant human lung cancer cell line A549/Taxol.” Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2015 Feb; 25(4): 787-90.
Pieme, C., et al. "Antiproliferative activity and induction of apoptosis by Annona muricata (Annonaceae) extract on human cancer cells." BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 2014 Dec; 14: 516.
Gavamukulya, Y., et al. "Phytochemical screening, anti-oxidant activity and in vitro anticancer potential of ethanolic and water leaves extracts of Annona muricata (Graviola)." Asian Pac. J. Trop. Med. 2014 Sep; 7S1: S355-63.
Zorofchian, M., et al. "Annona muricata leaves induce G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through mitochondria-mediated pathway in human HCT-116 and HT-29 colon cancer cells." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2014 Oct; 156: 277-89.
Moghadamtousi, S., et al. "Annona muricata leaves induced apoptosis in A549 cells through mitochondrial-mediated pathway and involvement of NF-κB." BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 2014 Aug; 14: 299.
Sun, S., et al. "Three new anti-proliferative Annonaceous acetogenins with mono-tetrahydrofuran ring from graviola fruit (Annona muricata)." Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2014 Jun; 24(12): 2773-6.
Paul, J., et al. "Anti cancer activity on graviola, an exciting medicinal plant extract vs various cancer cell lines and a detailed computational study on its potent anti-cancerous leads." Curr. Top. Med. Chem. 2013; 13(14): 1666-73.
de Pedro, N., et al. "Mitochondrial complex I inhibitors, acetogenins, induce HepG2 cell death through the induction of the complete apoptotic mitochondrial pathway." J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. 2013 Feb; 45(1-2): 153-64.
de Pedro, N., et al. "Analysis of cytotoxic activity at short incubation times reveals profound differences among Annonaceus acetogenins, inhibitors of mitochondrial Complex I." J. Bioenerg Biomembr. 2013 Feb; 45(1-2): 145-52
Hamizah, S., et al. "Chemopreventive potential of Annona muricata L leaves on chemically-induced skin papillomagenesis in mice." Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev. 2012; 13(6): 2533-9.
Torres, M., et al. "Graviola: a novel promising natural-derived drug that inhibits tumorigenicity and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo through altering cell metabolism." Cancer Lett. 2012 Oct; 323(1): 29-40.
Chen, Y., et al. "Anti-tumor activity of Annona squamosa seeds extract containing Annonaceous acetogenin compounds." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Jul; 142(2): 462-6.
Chen, Y., et al. "Antitumor activity of Annonaceous acetogenins in HepS and S180 xenografts bearing mice." Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2012 Apr; 22(8): 2717-9.
George, V., et al. "Quantitative assessment of the relative antineoplastic potential of the n-butanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata Linn. in normal and immortalized human cell lines." Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev. 2012; 13(2) :699-704.
Gomes de Melo, J., et al. "Antiproliferative activity, antioxidant capacity and tannin content in plants of semi-arid northeastern Brazil." Molecules. 2010 Nov; 15(12): 8534-42.
Ko, Y., et al. "Annonacin induces cell cycle-dependent growth arrest and apoptosis in estrogen receptor-a-related pathways in MCF-7 cells." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Oct; 137(3): 1283-90.
Tantithanaporn, S., et al. "Cytotoxic activity of acetogenins and styryl lactones isolated from Goniothalamus undulatus Ridl. root extracts against a lung cancer cell line (COR-L23)." Phytomedicine. 2011 Apr; 18(6): 486-90.
Coothankandaswamy, V., et al. "The alternative medicine pawpaw and its acetogenin constituents suppress tumor angiogenesis via the HIF-1/VEGF pathway." J. Nat. Prod. 2010 May; 73(5): 956-61.
Yang, h., et al. "Structure-activity relationships of diverse Annonaceous acetogenins against human tumor cells." Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009 Apr; 19(8): 2199-202.
Kojima, N. "Systematic synthesis of antitumor Annonaceous acetogenins." Yakugaku Zasshi. 2004; 124(10): 673-81.
Tormo, J., et al. "In vitro antitumor structure-activity relationships of threo/trans/threo mono-tetrahydro-furanic acetogenins: Correlations with their inhibition of mitochondrial complex I." Oncol. Res. 2003; 14(3): 147-54.
Yuan, S., et al. "Annonacin, a mono-tetrahydrofuran acetogenin, arrests cancer cells at the G1 phase and causes cytotoxicity in a Bax- and caspase-3-related pathway." Life Sci. 2003 May: 72(25): 2853-61.
Liaw, C., et al. "New cytotoxic monotetrahydrofuran Annonaceous acetogenins from Annona muricata." J. Nat. Prod. 2002; 65(4): 470-75
Gonzalez-Coloma, A., et al. "Selective action of acetogenin mitochondrial complex I inhibitors." Z. Naturforsch. 2002; 57(11-12): 1028-34.
Chang, F., et al. "Novel cytotoxic Annonaceous acetogenins from Annona muricata." J. Nat. Prod. 2001; 64(7): 925-31.
Jaramillo, M., et al. "Cytotoxicity and antileishmanial activity of Annona muricata pericarp." Fitoterapia. 2000; 71 (2): 183-6.
Betancur-Galvis, L., et al. "Antitumor and antiviral activity of Colombian medicinal plant extracts." Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 1999; 94(4): 531-35.
Kim, G., et al. "Muricoreacin and murihexocin C, mono-tetrahydrofuran acetogenins, from the leaves of Annona muricata." Phytochemistry. 1998; 49(2): 565-71.
Kim, G., et al. "Two new mono-tetrahydrofuran ring acetogenins, annomuricin E and muricapentocin, from the leaves of Annona muricata." J. Nat. Prod. 1998; 61(4): 432-36.
Nicolas, H., et al. "Structure-activity relationships of diverse Annonaceous acetogenins against multidrug resistant human mammary adenocarcinoma (MCF-7/Adr) cells." J. Med. Chem. 1997; 40(13): 2102-6.
Zeng, L., et al. "Five new monotetrahydrofuran ring acetogenins from the leaves of Annona muricata." J. Nat. Prod. 1996; 59(11): 1035-42.
Wu, F., et al. "Two new cytotoxic monotetrahydrofuran Annonaceous acetogenins, annomuricins A and B, from the leaves of Annona muricata." J. Nat. Prod. 1995; 58(6): 830-36.
Oberlies, N., et al. "Tumor cell growth inhibition by several Annonaceous acetogenins in an in vitro disk diffusion assay." Cancer Lett. 1995; 96(1): 55-62.
Wu, F., et al. "Additional bioactive acetogenins, annomutacin and (2,4-trans and cis)-10R-annonacin-A-ones, from the leaves of Annona muricata." J. Nat. Prod. 1995; 58(9): 1430-37.
Wu, F., et al. "New bioactive monotetrahydrofuran Annonaceous acetogenins, annomuricin C and muricatocin C, from the leaves of Annona muricata." J. Nat. Prod. 1995; 58(6): 909-5.
Wu, F., et al. "Muricatocins A and B, two new bioactive monotetrahydrofuran Annonaceous acetogenins from the leaves of Annona muricata." J. Nat. Prod. 1995; 58(6): 902-8.
Sundarrao, K., et al. "Preliminary screening of antibacterial and antitumor activities of Papua New Guinean native medicinal plants." Int. J. Pharmacog. 1993; 31(1): 3-6.
Mullaca (Physalis angulata)
Mullaca, and its novel plant steroids, have shown strong in vitro and in vivo (mice) cytotoxic activity against numerous types of cancer including leukemia, lung, colon, cervix and melanoma cancer cells.* It has also evidenced significant immunostimulant actions.*
Boonsombat, J., et al. "A new 22,26-seco physalin steroid from Physalis angulata." Nat. Prod. Res. 2019 Jan 8: 1-8.
Zhang, Y., et al. "Target discovery of cytotoxic withanolides from Physalis angulata var. villosa via reactivity-based screening." J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 2018 Mar; 151: 194-199.
Gao, C., et al. "Cytotoxic withanolides from Physalis angulata." Nat. Prod. Res. 2018 Mar; 32(6): 676-681.
Ma, T., et al. "Downregulation of TIGAR sensitizes the antitumor effect of physapubenolide through increasing intracellular ROS levels to trigger apoptosis and autophagosome formation in human breast carcinoma cells." Biochem. Pharmacol. 2017 Nov; 143: 90-106.
Sun, C., et al. "Physalins V-IX, 16,24-cyclo-13,14-seco withanolides from Physalis angulata and their antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activities. Sci. Rep. 2017 Jun; 7(1): 4057.
Sun, C., et al. "Antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory withanolides from Physalis angulata." J. Nat. Prod. 2016 Jun; 79(6): 1586-97.
Gao. C., et al. "Three new cytotoxic withanolides from the chinese folk medicine Physalis angulata." Nat. Prod. Commun. 2015 Dec; 10(12): 2059-62.
Maldonado, E., et al. "Cytotoxic 20,24-epoxywithanolides from Physalis angulata." Steroids. 2015 Dec; 104: 72-8.
Men, R.,et al. "Unprecedent aminophysalin from Physalis angulata." Steroids. 2014 Oct; 88:60-5.
Ding, H., et al. "Induction of quinone reductase (QR) by withanolides isolated from Physalis angulata L. var. villosa Bonati (Solanaceae). Steroids. 2014 Aug; 86: 32-8.
Mangwala, P., et al. "Isolation, pharmacological activity and structure determination of physalin B and 5β,6β-epoxyphysalin B isolated from Congolese Physalis angulata L.". Acta Crystallogr. C. 2013 Dec; 69(Pt 12): 1557-62.
Reyes-Reyes, E., et al. "Physangulidine A, a withanolide from Physalis angulata, perturbs the cell cycle and induces cell death by apoptosis in prostate cancer cells." J. Nat. Prod. 2013 Jan; 76(1): 2-7.
Wu, S., et al. "Physalin F induces cell apoptosis in human renal carcinoma cells by targeting NF-kappaB and generating reactive oxygen species." PLoS One. 2012; 7(7): e40727.
Jin, Z., et al. "Physangulidines A, B, and C: three new antiproliferative withanolides from Physalis angulata L." Org. Lett. 2012 Mar 2; 14(5): 1230-3.
Hsu, C., et al. "Physalin B from Physalis angulata triggers the NOXA-related apoptosis pathway of human melanoma A375 cells." Food Chem Toxicol. 2012 Mar; 50(3-4): 619-24.
Hseu, Y., et al. "Inhibitory effects of Physalis angulata on tumor metastasis and angiogenesis." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Jun; 135(3): 762-71.
Lee, H., et al. "Oxidative stress involvement in Physalis angulata-induced apoptosis in human oral cancer cells." Food Chem. Toxicol. 2009 Mar;47(3):561-70.
Lee, S., et al. "Withangulatin I, a new cytotoxic withanolide from Physalis angulata." Chem. Pharm. Bull (Tokyo). 2008 Feb; 56(2): 234-6.
Damu, A., et al. "Isolation, structures, and structure - cytotoxic activity relationships of withanolides and physalins from Physalis angulata." J. Nat. Prod. 2007 Jul;70(7):1146-52.
He, Q., et al. "Cytotoxic withanolides from Physalis angulata L." Chem. Biodivers. 2007 Mar; 4(3): 443-9.
Ausseil, F., et al. "High-throughput bioluminescence screening of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway inhibitors from chemical and natural sources." J. Biomol. Screen. 2007 Feb; 12(1): 106-16.
Kuo, P., et al. "Physanolide A, a novel skeleton steroid, and other cytotoxic principles from Physalis angulata." Org. Lett. 2006 Jul; 8(14): 2953-6.
Ichikawa, H., et al. "Withanolides potentiate apoptosis, inhibit invasion, and abolish osteoclastogenesis through suppression of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation and NF-kappaB-regulated gene expression." Mol. Cancer Ther. 2006; 5(6): 1434-45.
Magalhaes, H. I., et al. "In-vitro and in-vivo antitumour activity of physalins B and D from Physalis angulata." J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2006; 58(2): 235-41.
Jacobo-Herrera, N., et al. "Physalins from Witheringia solanacea as modulators of the NF-kappaB cascade." J. Nat. Prod. 2006; 69(3): 328-31.
Magalhaes, H., et al. "In-vitro and in-vivo antitumour activity of physalins B and D from Physalis angulata." J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2006 Feb; 58(2): 235-41.
Hsieh, W., et al. "Physalis angulata induced G2/M phase arrest in human breast cancer cells." Food Chem Toxicol. 2006; 44(7): 974-83.
Lee, C., et al. "Cytotoxicity of plants from Malaysia and Thailand used traditionally to treat cancer." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Sep; 100(3): 237-43.
Wu, S., et al. "Antihepatoma activity of Physalis angulata and P. peruviana extracts and their effects on apoptosis in human Hep G2 cells." Life Sci. 2004 Mar; 74(16): 2061-73.
Leyon, P., et al. "Effect of Withania somnifera on B16F-10 melanoma induced metastasis in mice." Phytother. Res. 2004; 18(2): 118-22.
Kawai, M., et al. "Cytotoxic activity of physalins and related compounds against HeLa cells." Pharmazie 2002; 57(5): 348-50.
Ismail, N., et al. "A novel cytotoxic flavonoid glycoside from Physalis angulata." Fitoterapia. 2001 Aug. 72(6):676-79.
Lee, Y., et al. "Integrity of intermediate filaments is associated with the development of acquired thermotolerance in 9L rat brain tumor cells." J. Cell. Biochem. 1995; 57(1): 150-62.
Perng, M., et al. "Induction of aggregation and augmentation of protein kinase-mediated phosphorylation of purified vimentin intermediate filaments by withangulatin A." Mol. Pharmacol. 1994; 46(4): 612-17.
Chiang, H., et al. "Antitumor agent, physalin F from Physalis angulata L." Anticancer Res. 1992; 12(3): 837-43.
Chiang, H., et al. "Inhibitory effects of physalin B and physalin F on various human leukemia cells in vitro." Anticancer Res. 1992; 12(4): 1155-62.
Kusumoto, I., et al. "Inhibitory effect of Indonesian plant extracts on reverse transcriptase of an RNA tumour virus (I)." Phytother. Res. 1992; 6(5): 241-44.
Lee, W., et al. "Induction of heat-shock response and alterations of protein phosphorylation by a novel topoisomerase II inhibitor, withangulatin A, in 9L rat brain tumor cells." Cell Physiol. 1991; 149(1): 66-67.
Chen, C., et al. "Withangulatin A, a new withanolide from Physalis angulata." Heterocycles. 1990; 31(7):1371-75.
Basey, K., et al. "Phygrine, an alkaloid from Physalis species." Phytochemistry. 1992; 31(12): 4173-76.
Juang, J., et al. "A new compound, withangulatin A, promotes type II DNA topoisomerasemediated DNA damage." Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1989; 159(3): 1128-34.
Anon. "Biological assay of antitumor agents from natural products." Abstr.: Seminar on the Development of Drugs from Medicinal Plants Organized by the Department of Medical Science Department at Thai Farmer Bank, Bangkok, Thailand 1982; 129.
Antoun, M., et al. "Potential antitumor agents. XVII. physalin B and 25,26-epidihydrophysalin C from Witheringia coccoloboides." J. Nat. Prod. 1981; 44(5): 579-85.
Guacatonga (Casearia sylvestris)
Natural plant compounds, called clerodane diterpenes, are found abundantly in guacatonga and
some have been patented as anticancerous agents. Clerodane diterpenes have been documented
with a wide range of biological activities ranging from insect antifeedants, to antitumorous,
anticancerous, and antibiotic agents, to HIV replication inhibitors. Some of the clerodane
diterpenes documented in guacatonga are novel chemicals which scientists have named
casearins (A thru X) and several have shown remarkable anticancerous actions in low dosages.
Moreira da Silva, R., et al. "Characterization of casearin X metabolism by rat and human liver microsomes." Planta Med. 2019 Mar; 85(4): 282-291.
Ferreira-Silva, G., et al. "Casearin D inhibits ERK phosphorylation and induces downregulation of cyclin D1 in HepG2 cells." Toxicol. In Vitro. 2017 Feb; 38: 27-32.
Ferreira, P., et al."Preclinical anticancer effectiveness of a fraction from Casearia sylvestris and its component Casearin X: in vivo and ex vivo methods and microscopy examinations." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2016 Jun; 186: 270-279.
Moreira da Silva, R., et al. "Evaluation of the intestinal absorption mechanism of casearin X in caco-2 cells with modified carboxylesterase activity." J. Nat. Prod. 2016 Apr; 79(4): 1084-90.
De Ford, C., et al. "The clerodane diterpene casearin J induces apoptosis of T-ALL cells through SERCA inhibition, oxidative stress, and interference with Notch1 signaling." Cell Death Dis. 2016; 7: e2070.
Ferreira., et al. "Morphological and biochemical alterations activated by antitumor clerodane diterpenes." Chem. Biol. Interact. 2014 Oct; 222: 112-25.
Felipe, K., et al. "Inhibition of tumor proliferation associated with cell cycle arrest caused by extract and fraction from Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae)." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2014 Sep; 155(3): 1492-9.
Dupuy, L., et al. "[In vitro effect of lupeol and casearin G on peripheral blood mononuclear and tumor cells]." Rev. Med. Chil. 2013 Sep; 141(9): 1150-7.
Bou, D., et al. "Chemical composition and cytotoxicity evaluation of essential oil from leaves of Casearia sylvestris, its main compound α-zingiberene and derivatives." Molecules. 2013 Aug; 18(8): 9477-87.
Prieto, A., et al. "Assessment of the chemopreventive effect of casearin B, a clerodane diterpene extracted from Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae)." Food Chem Toxicol. 2013 Mar; 53: 153-9.
Ismail, M., et al. "Anticancer properties and phenolic contents of sequentially prepared extracts from different parts of selected medicinal plants indigenous to Malaysia." Molecules. 2012 May; 17(5): 5745-56.
Faiella, L., et al. "A chemical proteomics approach reveals Hsp27 as a target for proapoptotic clerodane diterpenes." Mol Biosyst. 2012 Oct; 8(10): 2637-44.
Ferreira, P., et al. "Folk uses and pharmacological properties of Casearia sylvestris: a medicinal review." An Acad Bras Cienc. 2011 Dec; 83(4): 1373-84.
Vieira-Júnior, G., et al. "Cytotoxic clerodane diterpenes from Casearia rupestris." J Nat Prod. 2011 Apr; 74(4): 776-81.
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Espinheira Santa (Maytenus ilicifolia)
Espinheira santa contains several chemicals with documented anticancerous actions
including maytansine, pristimerin, and maytenin and other triterpene chemicals called
cangorins. The anticancer activities of pristimerin have been illustrated in various cancer cell
lines and animal models in recent research. It has been found to inhibit in vitro and in vivo
proliferation, survival, angiogenesis and metastasis of tumor cells.
Sun, J., et al. "Induction of cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in human cholangiocarcinoma cells by pristimerin." J. Cell Biochem. 2019 Mar 1.
Cevatemre, B., et al. "A promising natural product, pristimerin, results in cytotoxicity against breast cancer stem cells in vitro and xenografts in vivo through apoptosis and an incomplete autopaghy in breast cancer." Pharmacol. Res. 2018 Mar; 129: 500-514.
Zhang, Y., et al. "Pristimerin enhances the effect of cisplatin by inhibiting the miR 23a/Akt/GSK3β signaling pathway and suppressing autophagy in lung cancer cells." Int. J. Mol. Med. 2019 Mar; 43(3): 1382-1394.
Lee, Y., et al. "Combination of pristimerin and paclitaxel additively induces autophagy in human breast cancer cells via ERK1/2 regulation." Mol. Med. Rep. 2018 Nov; 18(5): 4281-4288.
Tu, Y., et al. "Pristimerin targeting NF-κB pathway inhibits proliferation, migration, and invasion in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells." Cell. Biochem. Funct. 2018 Jun; 36(4): 228-240.
Park J., and Kim, J. "Pristimerin, a naturally occurring triterpenoid, attenuates tumorigenesis in experimental colitis-associated colon cancer. Phytomedicine. 2018 Mar; 42: 164-171.
El-Agamy, D., et al. "Pristimerin protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity and
fibrosis through modulation of Nrf2 and MAPK/NF-kB signaling pathways." Cancer Manag. Res. 2018 Dec; 11: 47-61.
Mori, Y., et al. "Antitumor effects of pristimerin on human osteosarcoma cells in vitro and in vivo." Onco. Targets Ther. 2017 Nov; 10: 5703-5710.
Zhang, B., et al. "Pristimerin effectively inhibits the malignant phenotypes of uveal melanoma cells by targeting NF κB pathway." Int. J. Oncol. 2017 Sep; 51(3): 887-898.
Yan, Y., et al. "Degradation of P-glycoprotein by pristimerin contributes to overcoming ABCB1-mediated chemotherapeutic drug resistance in vitro." Oncol. Rep. 2017 Jan; 37(1): 31-40.
Yousef, B., et al. "Anticancer potential and molecular targets of pristimerin: A mini- review. Curr. Cancer Drug Targets. 2017; 17(2): 100-108.
Liu, Y., et al. "Anticancer agent pristimerin inhibits IL-2 induced activation of T lymphocytes. J. Exp. Ther. Oncol. 2016 Jul; 11(3): 181-188.
Lee, S., et al. "Anti-cancer effect of pristimerin by inhibition of HIF-1α involves the SPHK-1 pathway in hypoxic prostate cancer cells." BMC Cancer. 2016 Aug; 16: 701.
Xie, G., et al. "Pristimerin overcomes adriamycin resistance in breast cancer cells through suppressing Akt signaling." Oncol. Lett. 2016 May; 11(5): 3111-3116.
Yousef, B., et al. "Pristimerin inhibits proliferation, migration and invasion, and induces apoptosis in HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells." Biomed. Pharmacother. 2016 Apr; 79: 112-9.
Zhao, H., et al. "Pristimerin triggers AIF-dependent programmed necrosis in glioma cells via activation of JNK." Cancer Lett. 2016 Apr; 374(1): 136-148.
Yousef, B., et al. "Pristimerin demonstrates anticancer potential in colorectal cancer cells by inducing G1 phase arrest and apoptosis and suppressing various pro-survival signaling proteins." Oncol. Rep. 2016 Feb; 35(2): 1091-100.
Huang, S., et al. "Pristimerin inhibits prostate cancer bone metastasis by targeting PC-3 stem cell characteristics and VEGF-induced vasculogenesis of BM-EPCs." Cell. Physiol. Biochem. 2015; 37(1): 253-68.
Bukhari, S., et al. "Effects of plants and isolates of Celastraceae family on cancer pathways." Anticancer Agents Med. Chem. 2015; 15(6): 681-93. Review.
Deeb, D., et al. "Inhibition of hTERT/telomerase contributes to the antitumor activity of pristimerin in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells." Oncol. Rep. 2015 Jul; 34(1): 518-24.
Gao, X., et al. "Anticancer activity of pristimerin in ovarian carcinoma cells is mediated through the inhibition of prosurvival Akt/NF-κB/mTOR signaling." J. Exp. Ther. Oncol. 2014; 10(4): 275-83.
Liu, Y., et al. "Ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation of antiapoptotic survivin facilitates induction of apoptosis in prostate cancer cells by pristimerin." Int. J. Oncol. 2014 Oct; 45(4): 1735-41. Araújo Júnior, R., "Maytenus ilicifolia dry extract protects normal cells, induces apoptosis and regulates Bcl-2 in human cancer cells." Exp. Biol. Med. 2013 Nov; 238(11): 1251-8.
Liu, Y., et al. "Pristimerin induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cells by down-regulating Bcl-2 through ROS-dependent ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation pathway." J. Carcinog. Mutagen. 2013 Nov 5; Suppl 6:005.
Deeb, D., et al. "Pristimerin, a quinonemethide triterpenoid, induces apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells through the inhibition of pro-survival Akt/NF-κB/mTOR signaling proteins and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2." Int. J. Oncol. 2014 May; 44(5): 1707-15.
Guo, Y., et al. "Triterpenoid pristimerin induced HepG2 cells apoptosis through ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction." J. BUON. 2013 Apr-Jun; 18(2): 477-85.
Yan, Y., et, al. "The triterpenoid pristimerin induces U87 glioma cell apoptosis through reactive oxygen species-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction." Oncol. Lett. 2013 Jan; 5(1): 242-248.
Wang, Y., et al. "Pristimerin causes G1 arrest, induces apoptosis, and enhances the chemosensitivity to gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer cells." PLoS One. 2012; 7(8): e43826.
Mu, X., et al. "Pristimerin inhibits breast cancer cell migration by up- regulating regulator of G protein signaling 4 expression." Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev. 2012; 13(4): 1097-104.
Mu, X., et al. "Pristimerin, a triterpenoid, inhibits tumor angiogenesis by targeting VEGFR2 activation." Molecules. 2012 Jun; 17(6): 6854-68.
Yadav, V., et al. "Targeting inflammatory pathways by triterpenoids for prevention and treatment of cancer." Toxins (Basel). 2010 Oct; 2(10): 2428-66.
Lu, Z., et al. "Pristimerin induces apoptosis in imatinib-resistant chronic myelogenous leukemia cells harboring T315I mutation by blocking NF-kappaB signaling and depleting Bcr-Abl." Mol. Cancer. 2010 May 19; 9: 112.
Petronelli, A., et al. "Triterpenoids as new promising anticancer drugs." Anticancer Drugs. 2009 Nov; 20(10): 880-92
Byun, J., et al. "Reactive oxygen species-dependent activation of Bax and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 is required for mitochondrial cell death induced by triterpenoid pristimerin in human cervical cancer cells." Mol Pharmacol. 2009 Oct; 76(4): 734-44.
Tiedemann, R., et al. "Identification of a potent natural triterpenoid inhibitor of proteosome chymotrypsin-like activity and NF-kappaB with antimyeloma activity in vitro and in vivo." Blood. 2009 Apr; 113(17): 4027-37.
Costa, P., et al. "Antiproliferative activity of pristimerin isolated from Maytenus ilicifolia (Celastraceae) in human HL-60 cells." Toxicol In Vitro. 2008 Jun; 22(4): 854-63.
Liu Z, et al. "Metabolism studies of the anti-tumor agent maytansine and its analog ansamitocin P-3 using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry." J. Mass. Spectrom. 2005; 40(3): 389-99.
Nakao, H., et al. "Cytotoxic activity of maytanprine isolated from Maytenus diversifolia in human leukemia K562 cells." Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2004; 27(8): 1236-40.
Cassady, J. M., et al. "Recent developments in the maytansinoid antitumor agents." Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2004; 52(1): 1-26.
Ohsaki, A., et al. "Four new triterpenoids from Maytenus ilicifolia." J. Nat. Prod. 2004; 67(3): 469-71.
Horn, R. C., et al. "Antimutagenic activity of extracts of natural substances in the Salmonella/microsome assay." Mutagenesis. 2003 Mar; 18(2): 113-8.
Buffa Filho, W., et al. "Quantitative determination for cytotoxic Friedo-nor-oleanane derivatives from five morphological types of Maytenus ilicifolia (Celastraceae) by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography." Phytochem. Anal. 2002 Mar-Apr; 13(2): 75-8.
Miura, N. et al. "Protective effects of triterpene compounds against the cytotoxicity of cadmium in HepG2 cells." Mol. Pharm. 1999; 56(6); 1324-28.
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Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia)
Bitter melon has been shown in studies over the last 10 years to have antitumorous and anticancerous properties.* The plant contains the phytochemicals 5-hydroxytryptamine, zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, and lanosterol—all of which are documented to be anticancerous, antimutagenic and/or cytoprotective.*
Anticancerous & Cytotoxic Actions:
Fang, E., et al. "Emerging antitumor activities of the bitter melon (Momordica charantia)." Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2019; 20(3): 296-301.
Kim, K., et al. "Momordica charantia ethanol extract attenuates H O -induced cell death by its antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties in human neuroblastoma SK-N-MC Cells." Nutrients. 2018 Sep 24; 10(10). pii: E1368.
Farooqi, A., et al. "Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) as a rich source of bioactive components to combat cancer naturally: Are we on the right track to fully unlock its potential as inhibitor of deregulated signaling pathways." Food Chem Toxicol. 2018 Sep;119:98-105.
Rao, C., et al. "Immunomodulatory effects of Momordica charantia extract in the prevention of oral cancer." Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2018 Apr; 11(4): 185-186.
Jiang, Y., et al. "MAP30 promotes apoptosis of U251 and U87 cells by suppressing the LGR5 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, and enhancing SMAC expression." Oncol Lett. 2018 Apr; 15(4): 5833-5840.
Ali, M., et al. "The prophylactic and therapeutic effects of Momordica charantia methanol extract through controlling different hallmarks of the hepatocarcinogenesis." Biomed Pharmacother. 2018 Feb; 98: 491-498.
Sur, S., et al. "Bitter Melon prevents the development of 4-NQO-induced oral squamous cell carcinoma in an immunocompetent mouse model by modulating immune signaling." Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2018 Apr; 11(4): 191-202.
Pitchakarn, P., et al. "Kuguacin J isolated from bitter melon leaves modulates paclitaxel sensitivity in drug-resistant human ovarian cancer cells." J Nat Med. 2017 Oct; 71(4): 693-702.
Minari, J., et al. Analysis of Kras gene from induced pancreatic cancer rats administered with Momordica charantia and Ocimum basilicum leaf extracts. J Tradit Complement Med. 2017 May; 8(2): 282-288.
Wong, J., et al. "Apoptosis and anti-cancer drug discovery: the power of medicinal fungi and plants." Curr Med Chem. 2017 Jul 20.
Gu, H., et al. "Effect of Momordica charantia protein on proliferation, apoptosis and the AKT signal transduction pathway in the human endometrial carcinoma Ishikawa H cell line in vitro." Oncol Lett. 2017 May; 13(5): 3032-3038.
Bhattacharya, S., et al. "Bitter melon enhances natural killer-mediated toxicity against head and neck cancer cells." Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2017 Jun; 10(6): 337-344.
Tan, M., et al. "Effectively enhancing cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of alpha-momorcharin by integrating a heparin-binding peptide." Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 2017 Nov; 64(6): 918-926.
Sun, Y., et al. "Mono-PEGylation of Alpha-MMC and MAP30 from Momordica charantia L.: production, identification and anti-tumor activity." Molecules. 2016 Oct 31;21(11).
Luo, Z., et al. "The heparin-binding domain of HB-EGF as an efficient cell-penetrating peptide for drug delivery." J Pept Sci. 2016 Nov; 22(11-12): 689-699.
Dia, V., et al. "BG-4, a novel anticancer peptide from bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), promotes apoptosis in human colon cancer cells." Sci Rep. 2016 Sep 15;6:33532.
Moghadam, A., et al. "Expression of a recombinant Anti-HIV and anti-tumor protein, MAP30, in Nicotiana tobacum hairy roots: A pH-stable and thermophilic antimicrobial protein." PLoS One. 2016 Jul 26; 11(7): e0159653.
Raina, K., et al. "Promise of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) bioactives in cancer prevention and therapy." Semin Cancer Biol. 2016 Oct; 40-41: 116-129.
da Silva, T., et al. "Cytotoxic potential of selected medicinal plants in northeast Brazil." BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016 Jul 8; 16: 199.
Bhattacharya, S., et al. "Immunomodulatory role of bitter melon extract in inhibition of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma growth." Oncotarget. 2016 May; 7(22): 33202-9.
Qian, S., et al. "MAP30 inhibits autophagy through enhancing acetyltransferase p300 and induces apoptosis in acute myeloid leukemia cells." Oncol Rep. 2016 Jun; 35(6):3 705-13.
Dandawate, P., et al. "Bitter melon: a panacea for inflammation and cancer." Chin J Nat Med. 2016 Feb; 14(2): 81-100.
Bai, L., et al. "A triterpenoid from wild bitter gourd inhibits breast cancer cells." Sci Rep. 2016 Mar; 6: 22419.
Nguyen, B., et al. "Artepillin C and Other Herbal PAK1-blockers: Effects on Hair Cell Proliferation and Related PAK1-dependent Biological function in cell culture." Phytother Res. 2016 Jan; 30(1): 120-7.
Rothan, H., et al. "Scalable production of recombinant membrane active peptides and its potential as a complementary adjunct to conventional chemotherapeutics." PLoS One. 2015 Sep 29; 10(9): e0139248.
Yung, M., et al. "Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia) extract inhibits tumorigenicity and overcomes cisplatin-resistance in ovarian cancer cells through targeting ampk signaling cascade." Integr Cancer Ther. 2016 Sep;15(3):376-89.
Saengsai, J., et al. "Antibacterial and Antiproliferative Activities of Plumericin, an Iridoid Isolated from Momordica charantia Vine." Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015; 2015: 823178.
Lv, Q., et al. Recombinant expression and purification of a MAP30-cell penetrating peptide fusion protein with higher anti-tumor bioactivity. Protein Expr Purif. 2015 Jul; 111: 9-17.
Somasagara, R., et al. "Bitter melon juice targets molecular mechanisms underlying gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic cancer cells." Int J Oncol. 2015 Apr;46(4):1849-57.
Fan, X., et al. "Α-MMC and MAP30, two ribosome-inactivating proteins extracted from Momordica charantia, induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in A549 human lung carcinoma cells." Mol Med Rep. 2015 May;11(5):3553-8.
Kabir, S., et al. "Momordica charantia seed lectin: toxicity, bacterial agglutination and antitumor properties". Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2015 Mar;175(5):2616-28.
Liaw, C., et al. "5β,19-epoxycucurbitane triterpenoids from Momordica charantia and their anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity." Planta Med. 2015 Jan;81(1):62-70.
Cao, D., et al. "Alpha-momorcharin (α-MMC) exerts effective anti-human breast tumor activities but has a narrow therapeutic window in vivo." Fitoterapia. 2015 Jan;100:139-49.
Zhang, C., et al. "Momordica charantia lectin exhibits antitumor activity towards hepatocellular carcinoma." Invest New Drugs. 2015 Feb;33(1):1-11. doi: 10.1007/s10637-014-0156-8.
Deng, N., et al. "PEGylation alleviates the non-specific toxicities of Alpha-Momorcharin and preserves its antitumor efficacy in vivo." Drug Deliv. 2016;23(1):95-100.
Pan, W., et al. "Preferential cytotoxicity of the type I ribosome inactivating protein alpha-momorcharin on human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells under normoxia and hypoxia." Biochem Pharmacol. 2014 Jun 1;89(3):329-39.
Zhao, G., et al. "Cucurbitane-type triterpenoids from the stems and leaves of Momordica charantia." Fitoterapia. 2014 Jun;95:75-82.
Erharuyi, O., et al. "Anticancer activity of five forest crops used in African folklore: antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects." Nat Prod Res. 2014 Feb 26.
Manoharan, G., et al. "Effect of α, β momorcharin on viability, caspase activity, cytochrome c release and on cytosolic calcium levels in different cancer cell lines." Mol Cell Biochem. 2014 Mar;388(1-2):233-40.
Weng, J., et al. "Cucurbitane triterpenoid from Momordica charantia induces apoptosis and autophagy in breast cancer cells, in part, through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ activation." Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:935675.
Hsiao, P., et al. "Antiproliferative and hypoglycemic cucurbitane-type glycosides from the fruits of Momordica charantia." J Agric Food Chem. 2013 Mar 27; 61(12): 2979-86.
Hsu, H., et al. "Antimigratory Effects of the Methanol Extract from Momordica charantia on Human Lung Adenocarcinoma CL1 Cells." Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012; 2012: 819632.
Li, C., et al. "Momordica charantia extract induces apoptosis in human cancer cells through caspase- and mitochondria-dependent pathways." Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012; 2012: 261971.
Chipps, E., et al. "Cytotoxicity analysis of active components in bitter melon (Momordica charantia) seed extracts using human embryonic kidney and colon tumor cells." Nat Prod Commun. 2012 Sep;7(9):1203-8.
Tabata, K., et al. "Kuguaglycoside C, a constituent of Momordica charantia, induces caspase-independent cell death of neuroblastoma cells." Cancer Sci. 2012 Dec;103(12):2153-8.
Meng, Y., et al. "Preparation of an antitumor and antivirus agent: chemical modification of ?-MMC and MAP30 from Momordica charantia L. with covalent conjugation of polyethyelene glycol." Int J Nanomedicine. 2012;7:3133-42.
Soundararajan, R., et al. "Antileukemic potential of Momordica charantia seed extracts on human myeloid leukemic HL60 cells." Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012; 2012: 732404.
Fang, E., et al. "The MAP30 protein from bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) seeds promotes apoptosis in liver cancer cells in vitro and in vivo." Cancer Lett. 2012 Nov 1;324(1):66-74.
Fang, E., et al. "In vitro and in vivo anticarcinogenic effects of RNase MC2, a ribonuclease isolated from dietary bitter gourd, toward human liver cancer cells." Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2012 Aug; 44(8): 1351-60.
Wang, X., et al. "Structures of new triterpenoids and cytotoxicity activities of the isolated major compounds from the fruit of Momordica charantia L." J Agric Food Chem. 2012 Apr 18;60(15):3927-33.
Zhang, J., et al. "Cucurbitane triterpenoids from the leaves of Momordica charantia, and their cancer chemopreventive effects and cytotoxicities." Chem Biodivers. 2012 Feb;9(2):428-40.
Pitchakarn, P, et al. "Kuguacin J, a triterpeniod from Momordica charantia leaf, modulates the progression of androgen-independent human prostate cancer cell line, PC3." Food Chem Toxicol. 2012 Mar;50(3-4):840-7.
Brennan, V., et al. "Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) extract suppresses adrenocortical cancer cell proliferation through modulation of the apoptotic pathway, steroidogenesis, and insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor/RAC-? serine/threonine-protein kinase signaling." J Med Food. 2012 Apr;15(4):325-34.
Fang, E., et al. "RNase MC2: a new Momordica charantia ribonuclease that induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells associated with activation of MAPKs and induction of caspase pathways." Apoptosis. 2012 Apr;17(4):377-87.
Guan, L. "Synthesis and anti-tumour activities of sulphated polysaccharide obtained from Momordica charantia." Nat Prod Res. 2012;26(14):1303-9
Fang, E., et al. "Momordica charantia lectin, a type II ribosome inactivating protein, exhibits antitumor activity toward human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo." Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2012 Jan;5(1):109-21.
Pitchakarn, P., et al. "Kuguacin J isolated from Momordica charantia leaves inhibits P-glycoprotein (ABCB1)-mediated multidrug resistance." J Nutr Biochem. 2012 Jan;23(1):76-84.
Ru, P., et al. "Bitter melon extract impairs prostate cancer cell-cycle progression and delays prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in TRAMP model." Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011 Dec;4(12):2122-30.
Kupradinun, P., et al. "Anticlastogenic and anticarcinogenic potential of Thai bitter gourd fruits." Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2011;12(5):1299-305.
Feng, E., et al. "Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is a cornucopia of health: a review of its credited antidiabetic, anti-HIV, and antitumor properties." Curr Mol Med. 2011 Jul;11(5):417-36. Review.
Pitchakarn, P., et al. "Induction of G1 arrest and apoptosis in androgen-dependent human prostate cancer by Kuguacin J, a triterpenoid from Momordica charantia leaf." Cancer Lett. 2011 Jul 28;306(2):142-50.
Kai, H., et al. "Inhibition of proliferation by agricultural plant extracts in seven human adult T-cell leukaemia (ATL)-related cell lines." J Nat Med. 2011 Jul;65(3-4):651-5.
Agrawal, R., et al. "Chemopreventive and anticarcinogenic effects of Momordica charantia extract." Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2010;11(2):371-5.
Pitchakarn, P., et al. "Momordica charantia leaf extract suppresses rat prostate cancer progression in vitro and in vivo." Cancer Sci. 2010 Oct;101(10):2234-40.
Okada, Y., et al. "Screening of dried plant seed extracts for adiponectin production activity and tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitory activity on 3T3-L1 adipocytes." Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2010 Sep;65(3):225-32.
Ray, R., et al. "Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) extract inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation by modulating cell cycle regulatory genes and promotes apoptosis." Cancer Res. 2010 Mar 1;70(5):1925-31.
Rossmann, M., et al. "Eleostearic Acid inhibits breast cancer proliferation by means of an oxidation-dependent mechanism." Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila Pa). 2009; 2(10): 879-86.
Li, M., "Anti-tumor activity and immunological modification of ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) from Momordica charantia by covalent attachment of polyethylene glycol." Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai). 2009; 41(9): 792-9.
Xiong, S., et al. "Ribosome-inactivating proteins isolated from dietary bitter melon induce apoptosis and inhibit histone deacetylase-1 selectively in premalignant and malignant prostate cancer cells." Int. J. Cancer. 2009 Aug 15; 125(4): 774-82.
Kobori, M., et al. "Alpha-eleostearic acid and its dihydroxy derivative are major apoptosis-inducing components of bitter gourd." J. Agric. Food Chem. 2008 Nov; 56(22): 10515-20.
Fan, J., et al. "Effects of recombinant MAP30 on cell proliferation and apoptosis of human colorectal carcinoma LoVo cells." Mol. Biotechnol. 2008 May; 39(1): 79-86.
Akihisa, T., et al. "Cucurbitane-type triterpenoids from the fruits of Momordica charantia and their cancer chemopreventive effects." J. Nat. Prod. 2007; 70(8):1233-9.
Khan, S., et al. "Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia): a potential mechanism in anti-carcinogenesis of colon." World J. Gastroenterol. 2007 Mar; 13(11): 1761-2.
Hwang, Y., et al. "Momordin I, an inhibitor of AP-1, suppressed osteoclastogenesis through inhibition of NF-kappaB and AP-1 and also reduced osteoclast activity and survival." Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2005 Nov; 337(3): 815-23.
Yasui, Y., et al. "Bitter gourd seed fatty acid rich in 9c,11t,13t-conjugated linolenic acid induces apoptosis and up-regulates the GADD45, p53 and PPARgamma in human colon cancer Caco-2 cells." Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids. 2005 Aug; 73(2): 113-9.
Ike, K., et al. "Induction of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and T helper 1 (Th1) immune response by bitter gourd extract." J. Vet. Med. Sci. 2005; 67(5): 521-4.
Nagasawa, H., et al. "Effects of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) or ginger rhizome (Zingiber offifinale Rosc.) on spontaneous mammary tumorigenesis in SHN mice." Am. J. Clin. Med. 2002; 30(2-3): 195-205.
Kim, J. H., et al. "Induction of apoptosis by momordin I in promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells." Anticancer Res. 2002 May-Jun; 22(3): 1885-9.
Tazzari, P. L., et al. "An Epstein-Barr virus-infected lymphoblastoid cell line (D430B) that grows in SCID-mice with the morphologic features of a CD30+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma, and is sensitive to anti-CD30 immunotoxins." Haematologica. 1999; 84(11): 988-95.
Lee, D. K., et al. "Momordins inhibit both AP-1 function and cell proliferation." Anticancer Res. 1998 Jan-Feb; 18(1A): 119-24.
Terenzi, A., et al. "Anti-CD30 (BER=H2) immunotoxins containing the type-1 ribosome-inactivating proteins momordin and PAP-S (pokeweed antiviral protein from seeds) display powerful antitumor activity against CD30+ tumor cells in vitro and in SCID mice." Br. J. Haematol. 1996; 92(4): 872-79.
Bolognesi, A., et al. "Induction of apoptosis by ribosome-inactivating proteins and related immunotoxins." Int. J. Cancer. 1996 Nov; 68(3): 349-55.
Battelli, M. G., et al. "Toxicity of ribosome-inactivating proteins-containing immunotoxins to a human bladder carcinoma cell line." Int. J. Cancer. 1996 Feb; 65(4): 485-90.
Lee-Huang, S., et al. "Anti-HIV and anti-tumor activities of recombinant MAP30 from bitter melon." Gene. 1995; 161(2):151-56.
Cunnick, J. E., et al. "Induction of tumor cytotoxic immune cells using a protein from the bitter melon (Momordica charantia)." Cell Immunol. 1990 Apr; 126(2): 278-89.
Zhu, Z. J., et al. "Studies on the active constituents of Momordica charantia l." Yao. Hsueh. Hsueh. Pao. 1990; 25(12): 898-903.
Stirpe, F., et al. "Selective cytotoxic activity of immunotoxins composed of a monoclonal anti-Thy 1.1 antibody and the ribosome-inactivating proteins bryodin and momordin." Br. J. Cancer. 1988 Nov; 58(5): 558-61.
Takemoto, D. J., et al. "Purification and characterization of a cytostatic factor with anti-viral activity from the bitter melon. Part 2." Prep Biochem. 1983; 13(5): 397-421.
Takemoto, D. J., et al. "The cytotoxic and cytostatic effects of the bitter melon (Momordica charantia) on human lymphocytes." Toxicon. 1982; 20: 593-99.
Takemoto, D. J., et al. "Guanylate cyclase activity in human leukemic and normal lymphocytes. Enzyme inhibition and cytotoxicity of plant extracts." Enzyme. 1982; 27(3): 179-88.
Takemoto, D. J., et al. "Partial purification and characterization of a guanylate cyclase inhibitor with cytotoxic properties from the bitter melon (Momordica charantia)." Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1980; 94(1): 332-39.
Claflin, A. J., et al. "Inhibition of growth and guanylate cyclase activity of an undifferentiated prostate adenocarcinoma by an extract of the balsam pear (Momordica charantia abbreviata)." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 1978; 75(2): 989-93.
Vesely, D. L., et al. "Isolation of a guanylate cyclase inhibitor from the balsam pear (Momordica charantia abbreviata)." Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1977; 77(4): 1294-99.
Vassourinha (Scoparia dulcis)
Many of vassourinha's active biological properties, including its anticancerous properties, are
attributed to various flavone and terpene chemicals, some only found in vassourinha.. The
main chemicals being studied for their actions against cancer are scopadulcic acids A and B,
scopadiol, scopadulciol, scopadulin, scoparic acids A, B, and C, and betulinic acid.
Wang, W., et al. "Betulinic acid induces apoptosis and suppresses metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines in vitro and in vivo." J. Cell. Mol. Med. 2019 Jan; 23(1): 586-595
Jiao, L., et al. "Betulinic acid suppresses breast cancer aerobic glycolysis via caveolin-1/NF-kB/c-Myc pathway." Biochem. Pharmacol. 2019 Mar; 161: 149-162.
Sousa, J., et al. "Recent developments in the functionalization of betulinic acid and its natural analogues: a route to new bioactive compounds." Molecules. 2019 Jan; 24(2).
Zhan, X., et al. "Betulinic acid exerts potent antitumor effects on paclitaxel-resistant human lung carcinoma cells (H460) via G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and induction of mitochondrial apoptosis." Oncol. Lett. 2018 Sep; 16(3): 3628-3634.
de Las Pozas, A., "Inhibiting multiple deubiquitinases to reduce androgen receptor expression in prostate cancer cells." Sci. Rep. 2018 Sep; 8(1): 13146.
Yang, C., et al. "Betulinic acid induces apoptosis and inhibits metastasis of human renal carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo." J. Cell. Biochem. 2018 Nov; 119(10): 8611-8622.
Fuentes, R., et al. "Scopadulciol, isolated from Scoparia dulcis, induces β-catenin degradation and overcomes tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis ligand resistance in AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cells." J. Nat. Prod. 2015 Apr; 78(4): 864-72.
Wu, W., et al. "Benzoxazinoids from Scoparia dulcis (sweet broomweed) with antiproliferative activity against the DU-145 human prostate cancer cell line." Phytochemistry. 2012 Nov; 83: 110-5.
Hayashi, T., et al. "Investigation on traditional medicines of Guarany Indio and studies on diterpenes from Scoparia dulcis." Yakugaku Zasshi. 2011; 131(9): 1259-69.
Kessler, J., et al. "Broad in vitro efficacy of plant-derived betulinic acid against cell lines derived from the most prevalent human cancer types." Cancer Lett. 2007 Jun; 251(1): 132-45.
Mukherjee, R., et al. "Betulinic acid derivatives as anticancer agents: structure activity relationship." Anticancer Agents Med. Chem. 2006 May; 6(3): 271-9.
Phan, M., et al. "Chemical and biological evaluation on scopadulane-type diterpenoids from Scoparia dulcis of Vietnamese origin." Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2006 Apr; 54(4): 546-9.
Hayashi, K., et al. "The role of a HSV thymidine kinase stimulating substance, scopadulciol, in improving the efficacy of cancer gene therapy." J. Gene Med. 2006 Aug; 8(8): 1056-67.
Kasperczyk, H., et al. "Betulinic acid as new activator of NF-kappaB: molecular mechanisms and implications for cancer therapy." Oncogene. 2005 Oct; 24(46): 6945-56.
Fulda, S., et al. "Sensitization for anticancer drug-induced apoptosis by betulinic acid." Neoplasia. 2005; 7(2): 162-70.
Garg, A., et al. "Chemosensitization and radiosensitization of tumors by plant polyphenols." Antioxid. Redox. Signal. 2005; 7(11-12): 1630-47.
Wada, S., et al. "Betulinic acid and its derivatives, potent DNA topoisomerase II inhibitors, from the bark of Bischofia javanica." Chem. Biodivers. 2005 May; 2(5): 689-94.
Hayashi, K., et al. "Evaluation of scopadulciol-related molecules for their stimulatory effect on the cytotoxicity of acyclovir and ganciclovir against Herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase gene-transfected HeLa cells." Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2004; 52(8):1015-7.
Ahsan, M., et al. "Cytotoxic diterpenes from Scoparia dulcis." J. Nat. Prod. 2003; 66(7): 958-61.
Fulda, S., et al. "Betulinic acid induces apoptosis through a direct effect on mitochondria in neuroecto-dermal tumors." Med. Pediatr. Oncol. 2000; 35(6): 616-18.
Fulda, S., et al. "Betulinic acid: A new cytotoxic agent against malignant brain-tumor cells." Int. J. Cancer 1999; 82(3): 435-41.
Noda, Y., et al. "Enhanced cytotoxicity of some triterpenes toward leukemia L1210 cells cultured in low pH media; possibility of a new mode of cell killing." Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1997; 45(10): 1665-70.
Arisawa, M. "Cell growth inhibition of KB cells by plant extracts." Natural Med. 1994; 48(4): 338-47.
Nishino, H. "Antitumor-promoting activity of scopadulcic acid B, isolated from the medicinal plant Scoparia dulcis L." Oncology. 1993; 50(2): 100-3.
Hayashi, T., et al. "Scoparic acid A, a beta-glucuronidase inhibitor from Scoparia dulcis." J. Nat. Prod. 1992; 55(12): 1748
Hayashi, R., et al. "A cytotoxic flavone from Scoparia dulcis L." Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1988; 36: 4849-51.
Mutamba (Guazuma ulmifolia)
Thus far, mutamba has been documented to contain at least 4 different plant chemicals that have actions against cancer. Several of these chemicals are being synthesized in an attempt to create patentable derivatives as new cancer drugs.
Kumar, R., et al. "Procyanidin B2 3,3″-di-O-gallate induces oxidative stress-mediated cell death in prostate cancer cells via inhibiting MAP kinase phosphatase activity and activating ERK1/2 and AMPK." Mol. Carcinog. 2018 Jan; 57(1): 57-69.
Karthika, V., et al. "Guazuma ulmifolia bark-synthesized Ag, Au and Ag/Au alloy nanoparticles: Photocatalytic potential, DNA/protein interactions, anticancer activity and toxicity against 14 species of microbial pathogens. J. Photochem. Photobiol B. 2017 Feb; 167: 189-199.
Da'i, M., et al. "Antiproliferative properties of tiliroside from Guazuma ulmifolia lamk (leaves) on T47D and MCF7 cancer cell lines." Natl. J Physiol. Pharm. Pharmacol.. 2016; 6(6): 627-633.
Calixto Júnior, J., et al. "Phenolic composition and antiparasitic activity of plants from the Brazilian Northeast "Cerrado"" Saudi. J. Biol Sci. 2016 May; 23(3): 434-40.
Shilpi, A., et al. "Mechanisms of DNA methyltransferase-inhibitor interactions: Procyanidin B2 shows new promise for therapeutic intervention of cancer." Chem. Biol. Interact. 2015 May; 233: 122-38.
Shay, J., et al. "Molecular mechanisms and therapeutic effects of (-)-epicatechin and other polyphenols in cancer, inflammation, diabetes, and neurodegeneration." Oxid. Med. Cell Longev. 2015; 2015: 181260
Maldini, M., et al. "Flavanocoumarins from Guazuma ulmifolia bark and evaluation of their affinity for STAT1." Phytochemistry. 2013 Feb; 86: 64-71.
Avelar, M., et al. "Procyanidin B2 cytotoxicity to MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells." Indian J. Pharm Sci. 2012 Jul; 74(4): 351-5.
Jacobo-Salcedo Mdel, R., et al. "Antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Mexican medicinal plants." Nat Prod Commun. 2011 Dec; 6(12): 1925-8.
Cuca, L, et al. "Cytotoxic effect of some natural compounds isolated from Lauraceae plants and synthetic derivatives." Biomedica. 2011 Jul-Sep; 31(3): 335-43.
Hueso-Falcón, I., et al. "Synthesis and induction of apoptosis signaling pathway of ent-kaurane derivatives." Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2010 Feb 15;18(4):1724-35.
Cavalcanti, B., et al. "Kauren-19-oic acid induces DNA damage followed by apoptosis in human leukemia cells." J. Appl. Toxicol. 2009 Oct; 29(7): 560-8.
Seigler, D. S. "Cyanogenic glycosides and menisdaurin from Guazuma ulmifolia, Ostrya virgininana, Tiquilia plicata and Tiquilia canescens." Phytochemistry. 2005 Jul; 66(13): 1567-80.
Ito, H., et al. "Antitumor activity of compounds isolated from leaves of Eriobotrya japonica." J. Agric. Food Chem. 2002; 50(8): 2400-3.
Kashiwada, Y., et al. "Antitumor agents, 129. Tannins and related compounds as selective cytotoxic agents." J. Nat. Prod. 1992; 55(8): 1033-43.
Nascimento, S. C., et al. "Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities in plants from Pernambuco, Brazil." Fitoterapia. 1990; 61(4): 353-55.
Cat’s Claw (Uncaria tomentosa)
In addition to it's long documented immune stimulant actions, cat's claw (as well as it's various alkaloids) have been documented with anticancerous actions in the following studies.* One research group has also reported cat's claw might work in a similar fashion as tamoxifen by blocking estrogen receptor sites in breast tissues.*
Ciani, F., et al. "Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of Uncaria tomentosa aqueous extract in squamous carcinoma cells." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2018 Jan; 211: 285-294.
Allen, L., et al. "Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex Schult.) DC (Rubiaceae) Sensitizes THP-1 cells to radiation-induced cell death." Pharmacognosy Res. 2017 Jul-Sep; 9(3): 221-229.
Navarro, M., et al. "Fractioning of proanthocyanidins of Uncaria tomentosa. Composition and
structure-bioactivity relationship." Antioxidants (Basel). 2017 Jul; 6(3). pii: E60.
Komider, A., et al. "Uncaria tomentosa leaves decoction modulates differently ros production in cancer and normal cells, and effects cisplatin cytotoxicity." Molecules. 2017 Apr 12; 22(4).
Baraya, Y., et al. "The immunomodulatory potential of selected bioactive plant-based compounds in breast cancer: A review." Anticancer Agents Med. Chem. 2017; 17(6):770-783.
Santos, K., et al. "Uncaria tomentosa extract alters the catabolism of adenine nucleotides and expression of ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 and P2X7 and A1 receptors in the MDA-MB-231 cell line." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2016 Dec 24; 194: 108-116.
Kaiser, S., et al. "Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of oxindole alkaloids from Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw): Chemotype relevance. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2016 Aug; 189: 90-8.
Mentor, J., et al. "Topical AC-11 abates actinic keratoses and early squamous cell cancers in hairless mice exposed to ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation." Dermatol. Online J. 2015 Apr 16; 21(4).
de Paula, L., et al. "Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw) improves quality of life in patients with advanced solid tumors." J. Altern. Complement. Med. 2015 Jan; 21(1): 22-30.
Menghini, L., et al. "A natural formulation (imoviral ) increases macrophage resistance
to LPS-induced oxidative and inflammatory stress in vitro." J. Biol. Regul. Homeost.
Agents. 2014 Oct-Dec; 28(4): 775-82.
de Oliveira, L., et al. "Effect of Uncaria tomentosa extract on apoptosis triggered by Oxaliplatin exposure on HT29 Cells." Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2014; 2014: 274786.
Dietrich, F., et al. "Quinovic acid glycosides purified fraction from Uncaria tomentosa induces cell death by apoptosis in the T24 human bladder cancer cell line." Food Chem. Toxicol. 2014 May; 67: 222-9.
Deiab, S., et al. "High-throughput screening to identify plant derived human LDH-A inhibitors." European J Med Plants. 2013; 3(4): 603-615.
Kaiser, S., et al. "Cat's claw oxindole alkaloid isomerization induced by cell incubation and cytotoxic activity against T24 and RT4 human bladder cancer cell lines." Planta Med. 2013 Oct; 79(15): 1413-20.
Santos Araujo Mdo, C., et al. "Uncaria tomentosa - Adjuvant treatment for breast cancer: Clinical trial." Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2012; 2012: 676984.
Farias, I., et al. "Uncaria tomentosa for Reducing side effects caused by chemotherapy in CRC patients: Clinical Trial." Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2012; 2012: 892182.
Anter, J., et al.. "Antigenotoxicity, cytotoxicity, and apoptosis induction by apigenin, bisabolol, and protocatechuic acid." J. Med. Food. 2011 Mar; 14(3): 276-83.
Gurrola-Diaz, C., et al. "Inhibitory mechanisms of two Uncaria tomentosa extracts affecting the Wnt-signaling pathway." Phytomedicine. 2011 Jun; 18(8-9): 683-90.
Pilarski, R., et al. "Anticancer activity of the Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. preparations with different oxindole alkaloid composition." Phytomedicine. 2010 Dec; 17(14): 1133-9.
Dreifuss, A., et al. "Antitumoral and antioxidant effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa) (Willd. Ex Roem. & Schult) in an in vivo carcinosarcoma model." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Jul; 130(1): 127-33.
Garcia Gimenez, D., et al. "Cytotoxic effect of the pentacyclic oxindole alkaloid mitraphylline isolated from Uncaria tomentosa bark on human Ewing's sarcoma and breast cancer cell lines." Planta Med. 2010 Feb; 76(2):133-6.
Rinner, B., et al. "Antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of Uncaria tomentosa in human medullary thyroid carcinoma cells." Anticancer Res. 2009; 29(11): 4519-28.
Erowele, G., et al. "Pharmacology and therapeutic uses of cat's claw." Am. J. Health Syst. Pharm. 2009 Jun 1; 66(11): 992-5.
Pilarski, R., et al. "Antiproliferative activity of various Uncaria tomentosa preparations on HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells." Pharmacol. Rep. 2007 Sep-Oct; 59(5): 565-72.
Chen, A., et al. "Induction of apoptosis by Uncaria tomentosa through reactive oxygen species production, cytochrome c release, and caspases activation in human leukemia cells." Food Chem. Toxicol. 2007; 45(11): 2206-18.
Garcia Prado, E., et al. "Antiproliferative effects of mitraphylline, a pentacyclic oxindole alkaloid of Uncaria tomentosa on human glioma and neuroblastoma cell lines." Phytomedicine. 2007; 14(4): 280-4.
Gonzales, G.F., et al. "Medicinal plants from Peru: a review of plants as potential agents against cancer." Anticancer Agents Med. Chem. 2006 Sep; 6(5): 429-44.
De Martino, L., et al. "Proapoptotic effect of Uncaria tomentosa extracts." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Aug; 107(1): 91-4.
Bacher, N., et al. "Oxindole alkaloids from Uncaria tomentosa induce apoptosis in proliferating, G0/G1-arrested and bcl-2-expressing acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cells." Br. J. Haematol. 2006 Mar; 132(5): 615-22.
Riva, L., et al. "The antiproliferative effects of Uncaria tomentosa extracts and fractions on the growth of breast cancer cell line." Anticancer Res. 2001; 21(4A): 2457-61.
Muhammad, I., et al. "Investigation of Una de Gato I. 7-Deoxyloganic acid and 15N NMR spectroscopic studies on pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids from Uncaria tomentosa." Phytochemistry. 2001; 57(5): 781-5.
Sheng, Y., et al. "Induction of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation in human tumor cells treated with extracts of Uncaria tomentosa." Anticancer Res. 1998; 18(5A): 3363-68.
Salazar, E. L., et al. "Depletion of specific binding sites for estrogen receptor by Uncaria tomentosa." Proc. West. Pharmacol. Soc. 1998; 41(1): 123-124.
Stuppner, H., et al. "A differential sensitivity of oxindole alkaloids to normal and leukemic cell lines." Planta Med. (1993 suppl.); 59: A583.
Rizzi, R., et al. "Mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of Uncaria tomentosa and its extracts." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1993; 38: 63-77.
Peluso, G., et al. "Effetto antiproliferativo su cellule tumorali di estrattie metaboliti da Uncaria tomentosa. Studi in vitro sulla loro azione DNA polimerasi." 11 Congreso Italo-Peruano de Etnomedicina Andina, Lima, Peru, October 27-30, 1993, 21-2.
Rizzi, R., et al. "Bacterial cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of Uncaria tomentosa and its extracts. Antimutagenic activity of Uncaria tomentosa in humans." Premiere Colloque Européan d'Ethnopharmacologie, Metz, France, March 22-24, 1990.