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A synergistic formula of rainforest botanicals traditionally used in South America for gallbladder function and gallstones.* For more information on the individual ingredients in Amazon Gallbladder Support, follow the links provided below to the plant database files in the Tropical Plant Database.
Ingredients: A proprietary blend of artichoke, chanca piedra, boldo, carqueja, erva tostão, condurango, gervâo, and jurubeba. To prepare this natural remedy yourself: use three parts chanca peidra, two parts artichoke, and 1 part each of the remaining herbs in the list. To make a small amount... "1 part" could be one tablespoon (you'd have 11 tablespoons of the blended herbal formula). For larger amounts, use "1 part" as one ounce or one cup or one pound. Combine all the herbs together well. The herbal mixture can then be stuffed into capsules or brewed into tea, stirred into juice or other liquid, or taken however you'd like.Suggested Use: Take 2 grams twice daily (by weight) or 1 1/2 teaspoons (by volume) twice daily.
Artichoke (Cynara scolymus)
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Benedek, B., et al. "Choleretic effects of yarrow (Achillea millefolium S.L.) in the isolated perfused rat liver. Phytomedicine. 2006 Nov; 13(9-10): 702-6.
Emendorfer, F., et al. " Antispasmodic activity of fractions and cynaropicrin from Cynara scolymus on guinea-pig ileum." Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2005; 28(5): 902-4.
Emendorfer, F., et al. "Evaluation of the relaxant action of some Brazilian medicinal plants in isolated guinea-pig ileum and rat duodenum." J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci. 2005 Mar; 8(1): 63-8.
Wittemer, S. M., et al. " Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of caffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids after oral administration of Artichoke leaf extracts in humans." Phytomedicine. 2005; 12(1-2): 28-38.
Hiner, A. N., et al. " Kinetic study of the effects of calcium ions on cationic artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) peroxidase: calcium binding, steady-state kinetics and reactions with hydrogen peroxide." Biochimie. 2004; 86(9-10): 667-76.
Holtmann, G., et al. "Efficacy of artichoke leaf extract in the treatment of patients with functional dyspepsia: a six-week placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicentre trial." Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 2003 Dec; 18(11-12): 1099-105.
Saenz Rodriguez, T., et al. "Choleretic activity and biliary elimination of lipids and bile acids induced by an artichoke leaf extract in rats." Phytomedicine. 2002 Dec; 9(8): 687-93.
Gebhardt, R. "Anticholestatic activity of flavonoids from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and of their metabolites." Med. Sci. Monit. 2001; (7) Suppl. 1: 316–20.
Chanca Piedra (Phyllanthus niruri)
Murugaiyah V, et al. "Antihyperuricemic lignans from the leaves of Phyllanthus niruri." Planta Med. 2006 Nov; 72(14): 1262-7.
Micali, S., et al. "Can Phyllanthus niruri affect the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for renal stones? A randomized, prospective, long-term study." J. Urol. 2006 Sep; 176(3): 1020-2.
Barros, M. E., et al. "Effect of extract of Phyllanthus niruri on crystal deposition in experimental urolithiasis." Urol. Res. 2006 Aug 1;
Iizuka, T., et al. "Vasorelaxant Effects of Methyl Brevifolincarboxylate from the Leaves of Phyllanthus niruri." Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2006; 29(1): 177-9.
Nishiura, J. L., et al. "Phyllanthus niruri normalizes elevated urinary calcium levels in calcium stone forming (CSF) patients." Urol. Res. 2004 Oct; 32(5): 362-6.
Barros, M. E., et al. "Effects of an aqueous extract from Phyllanthus niruri on calcium oxalate crystallization in vitro." Urol. Res. 2003; 30(6): 374-9.
Freitas, A. M., et al. "The effect of Phyllanthus niruri on urinary inhibitors of calcium oxalate crystallization and other factors associated with renal stone formation." B. J. U. Int. 2002; 89(9): 829–34.
Campos, A. H., et al. "Phyllanthus niruri inhibits calcium oxalate endocytosis by renal tubular cells: its role in urolithiasis." Nephron. 1999; 81(4): 393–97.
Paulino, N., et al. "The relaxant effect of extract of Phyllanthus urinaria in the guinea-pig isolated trachea. Evidence for involvement of ATP-sensitive potassium channels." J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1996; 48(11): 1158-63.
Calixto, J. B., et al. "Antispasmodic effects of an alkaloid extracted from Phyllanthus sellowianus: a comparative study with papaverine." Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 1984; 17(3-4): 313-21.
Boldo (Peumus boldus)
Estelles, R., et al. "Effect of boldine, secoboldine, and boldine methine on angiotensin II-induced neurtrophil recruitment in vivo." J. Leukoc. Biol. 2005 Sep; 78(3): 696-704.
Kang, J. J., et al. "Studies on neuromuscular blockade by boldine in the mouse phrenic nerve diaphragm." Planta Med. 1999; 65(2): 178–79.
Kang, J. J., et al. "Effects of boldine on mouse diaphragm and sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles isolated from skeletal muscle." Planta Med. 1998; 64(1): 18–21.
Gotteland, M., et al. "Protective effect of boldine in experimental colitis." Planta Med. 1997; 63(4): 311–15.
Gotteland, M., et al. "Effect of a dry boldo extract on oro-cecal intestinal transit in healthy volunteers." Rev. Med. Chil. 1995; 123(8): 955–60.
Backhouse, N., et al. "Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of boldine." Agents Actions 1994; 42(3–4): 114–17.
Speisky, H., et al. "Boldo and boldine: an emerging case of natural drug development." Pharmacol. Res. 1994 Jan-Feb; 29(1): 1-12.
Tavares, D. C., et al. "Evaluation of the genotoxic potential of the alkaloid boldine in mammalian cell systems in vitro and in vivo." Mutat. Res. 1994; 321(3): 139–45.
Ivorra, M. D., et al. "Different mechanism of relaxation induced by aporphine alkaloids in rat uterus." J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1993; 45(5): 439–43.
Lanhers, M. C., et al. "Hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of a traditional medicinal plant of Chile, Peumus boldus." Planta Med. 1991; 57(2): 110–15.
Lévy-Appert-Collin, M. C., et al. "Galenic preparations from Peumus boldus leaves (Monimiacea)." J. Pharm. Belg. 1977; 32: 13.
Carqueja (Baccharis genistelloides, trimera)
Abad, M. J., et al. "Anti-inflammatory activity of four Bolivian Baccharis species (Compositae)." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Feb; 103(3): 338-44.
Coelho, M. G., et al. "Anti-arthritic effect and subacute toxicological evaluation of Baccharis genistelloides aqueous extract." Toxicol. Lett. 2004 1; 154(1-2): 69-80.
Hnatyszyn, O., et al. "Argentinian plant extracts with relaxant effect on the smooth muscle of the corpus cavernosum of guinea pig." Phytomedicine. 2003 Nov; 10(8): 669-74.
Torres, L. M., et al. "Diterpene from Baccharis trimera with a relaxant effect on rat vascular smooth muscle." Phytochemistry. 2000 Nov; 55(6): 617-9.
Gonzales, E., et al. "Gastric cytoprotection of Bolivian medicinal plants." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2000; 70(3): 329-33.
Gene, R. M., et al. "Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of Baccharis trimera: Identification of its active constituents." Planta. Med. 1996; 62(3): 232-5.
Gene, R. M., et al. "Anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous extracts of three species of the genus Baccharis." Planta Med. 1992 Dec; 58(6): 565-6.
Soicke, H., et al. "Characterisation of flavonoids from Baccharis trimera and their antihepatotoxic properties." Planta Med. 1987; 53(1): 37-9.
Erva Tostão (Boerhaavia diffusa)
Borrelli, F., et al. "Spasmolytic effects of nonprenylated rotenoid constituents of Boerhaavia diffusa roots." J. Nat. Prod. 2006; 69(6): 903-6.
Borrelli, F., et al. "Isolation of new rotenoids from Boerhaavia diffusa and evaluation of their effect on intestinal motility." Planta Med. 2005; 71(10): 928-32.
Rawat, A. K., et al. "Hepatoprotective activity of Boerhaavia diffusa L. roots—a popular Indian ethnomedicine." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1997; 56(1): 61-66.
Chandan, B. K., et al. "Boerhaavia diffusa: a study of its hepatoprotective activity." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1991; 31(3): 299-307.
Mudgal, V. "Studies on medicinal properties of Convolvulus pluricaulis and Boerhaavia diffusa." Planta Med. 1975; 28: 62.
Condurango (Marsdenia cundurango)
Yamasaki, K., et al. "Studies on the effect of crude drugs on enzyme activites (IV) Influence of stomachic crude drugs on digestive enzymes." Shoyakugaku Zasshi. 1986; 40(3): 289-294.
De Las Heras, B., et al. " Antiinflammatory and antioxidant activity of plants used in traditional medicine in Ecuador." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1998; 61(2): 161-166.
Ortega, T., et al. "Anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extracts of plants used in traditional medicine in Ecuador." Phytother. Res. 1996: S121 -S122.
Gervâo (Stachytarpheta jamaicensis)
Lee, J. H., et al. "The effect of acteoside on histamine release and arachidonic acid release in RBL-2H3 mast cells." Arch. Pharm. Res. 2006 Jun; 29(6): 508-13.
Penido, C., et al. "Anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerogenic properties of Stachytarpheta cayennensis (L.C. Rich) Vahl." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Mar; 104(1-2): 225-33.
Mesia-Vela, S., et al. "Pharmacological study of Stachytarpheta cayennensis Vahl in rodents." Phytomedicine. 2004; 11(7-8): 616-24.
Vela, S. M., et al. "Inhibition of gastric acid secretion by the aqueous extract and purified extracts of Stachytarpheta cayennensis." Planta Med. 1997; 63(1): 36-9.
Almeida, C. E., et al. "Analysis of antidiarrhoeic effect of plants used in popular medicine." Rev. Saude. Publica. 1995; 29(6): 428-33.
Ferrandiz, M. L., et al. "Hispidulin protection against hepatotoxicity induced by bromobenzene in mice." Life Sci. 1994; 55(8): PL145-50.
Jurubeba (Solanum paniculatum)
Botion, L. M., et al. "Effects of the Brazilian phytopharmaceutical product Jerobina® on lipid metabolism and intestinal tonus." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Nov; 102(2): 137-42.
Braga, F. T., et al. Jurubeba. Centro Universitário de Lavras, Lavras-MG Brazil, 2002.
Mesia-Vela, S., et al. "Solanum paniculatum L. (Jurubeba): Potent inhibitor of gastric acid secretion in mice." Phytomedicine 2002; 9(6): 508-14.
Barros, G. S. G., et al. "Pharmacological screening of some Brazilian northeastern plants." Rev. Bras. Farm. 1970; 48: 195-204.