A combination of 6 plants which have been traditionally used to lower cholesterol levels.* For more information on the individual ingredients in Amazon Blood Support, follow the links provided below to the plant database files in the Tropical Plant Database. More information can also be found in the Organ-Specific Guide.
Ingredients: A proprietary blend of artichoke, bitter melon, yerba mate, vassourinha, pata de vaca, and sarsaparilla. To prepare this natural remedy yourself: Use three parts artichoke, two parts bitter melon and one part each of the remaining plants shown in the list above. To make a small amount... "1 part" could be one tablespoon (you'd have 9 tablespoons of the blended herbal formula). For larger amounts, use "1 part" as one ounce or one cup or one pound. Combine all the herbs together well. The herbal mixture can then be stuffed into capsules or brewed into tea, stirred into juice or other liquid, or taken however you'd like.Suggested Use: Take 1-2 grams twice daily. (One gram is approximately 1 teaspoon by volume)
Artichoke (Cynara scolymus)
A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was published in 2000 on artichoke leaf extract. For six weeks, 143 patients with high cholesterol were given artichoke; at the end of the test, results showed a decrease of 10%-15% in total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), and ratio of LDL to HDL cholesterol. Scientists now report that the cholesterol-lowering effect of artichoke can be attributed to chemicals other than just cynarin, including several newly discovered ones. Another human study in 2008 re-confirmed artichoke's cholesterol lowering actions in the about the same decrease.
Rojas, Á., et al. "Natural extracts abolished lipid accumulation in cells harbouring non-favourable PNPLA3 genotype." Ann. Hepatol. 2018 Mar; 17(2): 242-249.
Santos, H., et al. "The effect of artichoke on lipid profile: A review of possible mechanisms of action." Pharmacol. Res. 2018 Nov; 137: 170-178.
Rondanelli, M., et al. "Mediterrasian diet products that could raise HDL-cholesterol: a systematic review." Biomed. Res. Int. 2016; 2016: 2025687.
Crevar-Sakac, M., et al. "Effects of atorvastatin and artichoke leaf tincture on oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic rats". Vojnosanit Pregl. 2016 Feb; 73(2): 178-87.
Wider, B., et al. "Artichoke leaf extract for treating hypercholesterolaemia." Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Mar 28; (3): CD003335.
Rondanelli, M., et al. "Beneficial effects of artichoke leaf extract supplementation on increasing HDL-cholesterol in subjects with primary mild hypercholesterolaemia: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial." Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 2013 Feb; 64(1): 7-15.
Qiang, Z., et al. "Artichoke extract lowered plasma cholesterol and increased fecal bile acids in Golden Syrian hamsters." Phytother. Res. 2012 Jul; 26(7): 1048-52.
Kusku-Kiraz, Z., et al. "Artichoke leaf extract reduces oxidative stress and lipoprotein dyshomeostasis in rats fed on high cholesterol diet." Phytother Res. 2010 Apr; 24(4): 565-70.
Kucukgergin, C., et al. "Effect of artichoke leaf extract on hepatic and cardiac oxidative stress in rats fed on high cholesterol diet." Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 2010 Jun; 135(1-3): 264-74.
Wider, B., et al. "Artichoke leaf extract for treating hypercholesterolaemia." Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Oct 7; (4): CD003335.
Bundy, R., et al. "Artichoke leaf extract (Cynara scolymus) reduces plasma cholesterol in otherwise healthy hypercholesterolemic adults: a randomized, double blind placebo controlled trial." Phytomedicine. 2008; 15(9): 668-75.
Lupattelli, G., et al. "Artichoke juice improves endothelial function in hyperlipemia." Life Sci. 2004 Dec; 76(7): 775-82.
Thompson Coon, J., et al. "Herbs for serum cholesterol reduction: a systematic view." J. Fam. Pract. 2003; 52(6): 468-78.
Shimoda, H., et al. "Anti-hyperlipidemic sesquiterpenes and new sesquiterpene glycosides from the leaves of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.): structure requirement and mode of action." Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2003; 13(2): 223-28.
Gebhardt, R. "Inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis in HepG2 cells by artichoke extracts is reinforced by glucosidase pretreatment." Phytother. Res. 2002; 16(4): 368-72.
Wegener, T. "The status of herbal antilipemic agents." Wien. Med. Wochenschr. 2002; 152(15-16): 412-7.
Englisch, W., et al. "Efficacy of artichoke dry extract in patients with hyperlipoproteinemia." Arzneimittelforschung 2000; 40(3): 260-65.
Gebhardt, R. "Anticholestatic activity of flavonoids from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and of their metabolites." Med. Sci. Monit. 2001 May; 7 Suppl 1: 316-20.
Gebhardt, R. "Inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis in primary cultured rat hepatocytes by artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) extracts." J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1998; 286(3): 1122-28.
Brown, J. E., et al. "Luteolin-rich artichoke extract protects low density lipoprotein from oxidation in vitro." Free Radic. Res. 1990; 29(3): 247-55.
Wojcicki, J., et al. "Cynarin and hyperlipidemia" Wiad. Lek. 1977 Oct; 30(19): 1539-41.
Pristautz, H., et al. "Cynarin in the modern management of hyperlipemia." Wien. Med. Wochenschr. 1975; 125(49): 705-9.
Montini, M., et al. "Controlled application of cynarin in the treatment of hyperlipemic syndrome. Observations in 60 cases." Arzneimittelforschung 1975; 25(8): 1311-14.
Bobnis, W., et al. "Case of primary hyperlipemia treated with cynarin." Wiad. Lek. 1973; 26(13): 1267-70.
Grogan, J., et al. "Potential hypocholesterolemic agents: dicinnamoyl esters as analogs of cynarin." J. Pharm. Sci. 1972; 61(5): 802-3.
Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia)
Bitter melon has shown to lower cholesterol in many animal studies over the years. In one study, elevated cholesterol and triglyceride levels in diabetic rats were returned to normal after 10 weeks of treatment.
Kinoshita, H., et al. "Effect of bitter melon extracts on lipid levels in Japanese subjects: a randomized controlled study." Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2018 Nov 8; 2018: 4915784.
He, Q., et al. "Hypolipidemic and antioxidant potential of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) leaf in mice fed on a high-fat diet." Pak J Pharm Sci. 2018 Sep;31(5):1837-1843.
Mahwish, F., et al. "Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of different parts and formulations of bitter gourd Momordica Charantia)." Lipids Health Dis. 2017 Nov 10;16(1):211.
Saad, D., et al. "Effects of Karela (Bitter Melon; Momordica charantia) on genes of lipids and carbohydrates metabolism in experimental hypercholesterolemia: biochemical, molecular and histopathological study." BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017 Jun 17;17(1):319.
Su, J., et al. "Hypocholesterolaemic mechanism of bitter melon aqueous extracts via inhibition of pancreatic cholesterol esterase and reduction of cholesterol micellar solubility." Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2016;67(1):20-8.
Wang, J., et al. "The effects of Momordica charantia on obesity and lipid profiles of mice fed a high-fat diet." Nutr Res Pract. 2015 Oct;9(5):489-95.
Dar, U., et al. "Biochemical analysis of the crude extract of Momordica charantia (L.)." Pak J Pharm Sci. 2014 Nov;27(6 Spec No.):2237-40.
Matsui, S., et al. "The hypocholesterolemic activity of Momordica charantia fruit is mediated by the altered cholesterol- and bile acid-regulating gene expression in rat liver." Nutr Res. 2013 Jul;33(7):580-5.
Senanayake, G., et al. "Mechanisms underlying decreased hepatic triacylglycerol and cholesterol by dietary bitter melon extract in the rat." Lipids. 2012 May;47(5):495-503.
Saha, S., et al. "Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of conjugated linolenic acid isomers against streptozotocin-induced diabetes." Br J Nutr. 2012 Sep 28;108(6):974-83
Saha, S., et al. "Comparative study of hypocholesterolemic and hypolipidemic effects of conjugated linolenic acid isomers against induced biochemical perturbations and aberration in erythrocyte membrane fluidity." Eur J Nutr. 2012 Jun;51(4):483-95.
Ching, R. "Supplementation of bitter melon to rats fed a high-fructose diet during gestation and lactation ameliorates fructose-induced dyslipidemia and hepatic oxidative stress in male offspring." J Nutr. 2011 Sep;141(9):1664-72.
Sato, M., et al. "Dietary kakrol (Momordica dioica Roxb.) flesh inhibits triacylglycerol absorption and lowers the risk for development of fatty liver in rats." Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2011 Oct 1;236(10):1139-46.
Lin, K., et al. "Antioxidant constituents from the stems and fruits of Momordica charantia. Food Chem. 2011 Jul 15;127(2):609-14. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.01.051.
Nerurkar, P., et al. "Momordica charantia (bitter melon) attenuates high-fat diet-associated oxidative stress and neuroinflammation." J Neuroinflammation. 2011 Jun 3;8:64.
Popovich, D., et al. "Momordica charantia seed extract reduces pre-adipocyte viability, affects lactate dehydrogenase release, and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells." J Med Food. 2011 Mar;14(3):201-8.
Kavitha, N., et al. "Influence of Momordica charantia on oxidative stress-induced perturbations in brain monoamines and plasma corticosterone in albino rats." Indian J Pharmacol. 2011 Jul;43(4):424-8.
Chen, C., et al. "Cucurbitane triterpenoids from Momordica charantia and their cytoprotective activity in tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced hepatotoxicity of HepG2 cells." Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2010 Dec;58(12):1639-42.
Chaturvedi, P., et al. "Momordica charantia maintains normal glucose levels and lipid profiles and prevents oxidative stress in diabetic rats subjected to chronic sucrose load." J Med Food. 2010 Jun;13(3):520-7.
Chang, C., et al. "Octanorcucurbitane triterpenoids protect against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced hepatotoxicity from the stems of Momordica charantia." Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2010 Feb;58(2):225-9.
Yama, O., et al. "Effect of methanolic seed extract of Momordica charantia on body weight and serum cholesterol level of male Sprague-Dawley rats." Nig Q J Hosp Med. 2010 Oct-Dec;20(4):209-13.
Chaturvedi, P. "Bitter melon protects against lipid peroxidation caused by immobilization stress in albino rats." Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res. 2009; 79(1): 48-56.
Nerurkar, P., et al. "Lipid lowering effects of Momordica charantia (Bitter Melon) in HIV-1-protease inhibitor-treated human hepatoma cells, HepG2." Br. J. Pharmacol. 2006 Aug; 148(8): 1156-64.
Chan, L. L., et al. "Reduced adiposity in bitter melon (Momordica charantia)-fed rats is associated with increased lipid oxidative enzyme activities and uncoupling protein expression." J. Nutr. 2005; 135(11): 2517-23.
Chen, Q., et al. "Reduced adiposity in bitter melon (Momordica charantia) fed rats is associated with lower tissue triglyceride and higher plasma catecholamines." Br. J. Nutr. 2005; 93(5): 747-54.
Hsieh, C. L., et al. "Inhibitory effect of some selected nutraceutic herbs on LDL glycation induced by glucose and glyoxal." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Dec; 102(3): 357-63.
Chaturvedi, P. "Role of Momordica charantia in maintaining the normal levels of lipids and glucose in diabetic rats fed a high-fat and low-carbohydrate diet." Br. J. Biomed. Sci. 2005; 62(3): 124-6.
Sathishsekar, D., et al. "Antioxidant properties of Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) seeds on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats." Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr. 2005; 14(2): 153-8.
Ansari, N. M., et al. "Antioxidant activity of five vegetables traditionally consumed by South-Asian migrants in Bradford, Yorkshire, UK." Phytother. Res. 2005; 19(10): 907-11.
Senanayake, G.V. et al. "The effects of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) extracts on serum and liver lipid parameters in hamsters fed cholesterol-free and cholesterol-enriched diets." J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. 2004 Aug; 50(4): 253-7.
Ahmed, I., et al. "Hypotriglyceridemic and hypocholesterolemic effects of anti-diabetic Momordica charantia (Karela) fruit extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats." Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 2001; 51(3):155-61.
Jayasooriya, A. P., et al. "Effects of Momordica charantia powder on serum glucose levels and various lipid parameters in rats fed with cholesterol-free and cholesterol-enriched diets." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2000; 72 (1-2): 331.
Pata de Vaca (Bauhinia forficata)
In 2004, a research group reported that pata de vaca lowered blood sugar in rats and also reduced tri-glycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol levels in diabetic rats stating, "These results suggest the validity of the clinical use of B. forficata [pata de vaca] in the treatment of Diabetes mellitus type II."
Córdova Mariángel, P., et al. "Effects of Bauhinia forficata Link tea on lipid profile in diabetic patients." J. Med. Food. 2019 Feb 28.
Ferreres, F., et al. "Bauhinia forficata Link authenticity using flavonoids profile: Relation with their biological properties." Food Chem. 2012 Sep; 134(2): 894-904.
Lino, S., et al. "Antidiabetic activity of Bauhinia forficata extracts in alloxan-diabetic rats." Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2004; 27(1): 125-7.
Miyake, E., et al. "[Pharmacognostic characterization of pata-de-vaca (Bauhinia fortificata)]." Rev. Bras. Farmacogn. 1986; 1(1): 56-68.
Curcio, S., et al. "Hypoglycemic effects of an aqueous extract of Bauhinia forficata on the salivary glands of diabetic mice." Pak J Pharm Sci. 2012 Jul;25(3):493-9.
Trojan-Rodrigues, M., et al. "Plants used as antidiabetics in popular medicine in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil." J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Jan 6;139(1):155-63
Pereira, D., et al. "Effects of flavonoids on alpha-glucosidase activity: potential targets for glucose homeostasis." Nutrition. 2011 Nov-Dec;27(11-12):1161-7.
Cechinel-Zanchett, C., et al. "Flavonoid-rich fraction of Bauhinia forficata Link leaves prevents the intestinal toxic effects of irinotecan chemotherapy in IEC-6 cells and in mice." Phytother. Res. 2019 Jan; 33(1): 90-106.
Jang, W., "Protective effects of kaempferitrin on advanced glycation end products induce mesangial cell apoptosis and oxidative stress." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018 Oct 26; 19(11).
Sampaio, C., et al. "Alcohol extract of Bauhinia forficata link reduces lipid peroxidation in the testis and epididymis of adult Wistar rats." Microsc. Res. Tech. 2018 Dec 21.
Ecker, A., et al. "High-sucrose diet induces diabetic-like phenotypes and oxidative stress in Drosophila melanogaster: Protective role of Syzygium cumini and Bauhinia forficata." Biomed. Pharmacother. 2017 May; 89: 605-616.
Santos, M., et al. "Analysis of flavonoid glycosides with potential medicinal properties on Bauhinia uruguayensis and Bauhinia forficata subspecies pruinosa." Nat. Prod. Res. 2018 Apr 5: 1-5.
Franco, R., et al. "Antioxidant and anti-glycation capacities of some medicinal plants and their potential inhibitory against digestive enzymes related to type 2 diabetes mellitus." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2018 Apr; 215: 140-146.
Salgueiro, A., et al. "Effects of Bauhinia forficata tea on oxidative stress and liver damage in diabetic mice." Oxid. Med. Cell. Longev. 2016; 2016: 8902954.
Farag, M., et al. "Phytochemical, antioxidant and antidiabetic evaluation of eight Bauhinia L. species from Egypt using UHPLC-PDA-qTOF-MS and chemometrics." Phytochemistry. 2015 Nov; 119: 41-50.
Miceli, N., et al. "Role of the flavonoid-rich fraction in the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Bauhinia forficata Link. (Fabaceae) leaves extract." Nat. Prod. Res. 2016 Jun; 30(11): 1229-39.
Ecker, A., et al. "Effect of Syzygium cumini and Bauhinia forficata aqueous-leaf extracts on oxidative and mitochondrial parameters in vitro." EXCLI J. 2015 Nov; 14: 1219-31.
Düsman, E., et al. "Antimutagenic effect of medicinal plants Achillea millefolium and Bauhinia forficata in vivo." Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2013; 2013 :893050.
Sayago, C., et al. "Chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of hydro-ethanolic extracts from Bauhinia forficata subsp. pruinosa and B. variegata." Acta Biol. Hung. 2013 Mar; 64(1): 21-33.
Salgueiro., et al. "The influence of Bauhinia forficata Link subsp. pruinosa tea on lipid peroxidation and non-protein SH groups in human erythrocytes exposed to high glucose concentrations." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2013 Jun; 148(1): 81-7.
Peroza, L., et al. "Bauhinia forficata prevents vacuous chewing movements induced by haloperidol in rats and has antioxidant potential in vitro." Neurochem. Res. 2013 Apr; 38(4): 789-96.
Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguariensis)
Yerba mate has demonstrated cholesterol lowering, anti-obesity, and thermogenic (fat-burning) actions in the studies cited below.
Chianese, G., et al. "Bioactive triterpenoids from the caffeine-rich plants guayusa and maté." Food Res. Int. 2019 Jan; 115: 504-510.
Machado, M., et al. "Ilex paraguariensis modulates fat metabolism in Caenorhabditis elegans through purinergic system (ADOR-1) and nuclear hormone receptor (NHR-49) pathways." PLoS One. 2018 Sep; 13(9): e0204023.
Dos Santos, T., et al. "Yerba mate stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis and thermogenesis in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice." Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2018 May 31: e1800142.
de Oliveira, E., et al. "Treatment with Ilex paraguariensis (yerba mate) aqueous solution prevents hepatic redox imbalance, elevated triglycerides, and microsteatosis in overweight adult rats that were precociously weaned." Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 2018; 51(6) :e7342.
Chaves, G., et al. "Heavy drinkers of Ilex paraguariensis beverages show lower lipid profiles but higher body weight." Phytother. Res. 2018 Jun; 32(6): 1030-1038.
Miranda, A., et al. "[Regional oxidative stress in encephalon of female mice with polyphenolic exposure from tea extracts in oral overweight plant-based treatment]." Rev. Fac. Cien. Med. Univ. Nac. Cordoba. 2017 Sep; 74(3): 197-202.
Choi, M., et al. "Long-term dietary supplementation with yerba mate ameliorates diet-induced obesity and metabolic disorders in mice by regulating energy expenditure and lipid metabolism. J. Med. Food. 2017 Dec; 20(12): 1168-1175.
Colpo, A., et al. "Ilex paraguariensis extracts extend the lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster fed a high-fat diet." Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 2017 Nov; 51(2): e6784.
Alkhatib, A., et al. "Yerba maté (Ilex paraguariensis) metabolic, satiety, and mood state effects at rest and during prolonged exercise." Nutrients. 2017 Aug 15; 9(8).
Conceição, E., et al. "Effects of Ilex paraguariensis (yerba mate) on the hypothalamic signalling of insulin and leptin and liver dysfunction in adult rats overfed during lactation." J. Dev. Orig. Health Dis. 2017 Feb; 8(1): 123-132.
Oh, K., et al. "Optimization of pancreatic lipase inhibitory and antioxidant activities of Ilex paraguariensis by using response surface methodology." Arch. Pharm. Res. 2016 Jul; 39(7): 946-52.
Gamboa-Gómez, C., et al. "Plants with potential use on obesity and its complications." EXCLI J. 2015 Jul; 14: 809-31.
Kim, S., et al. "Anti-obesity effects of Yerba Mate (Ilex Paraguariensis): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial." BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 2015 Sep; 15: 338.
Messina, D., et al. "[Lipid - lowering effect of mate tea intake in dyslipidemic subjects]." Nutr. Hosp. 2015 May; 31(5): 2131-9.
Gambero, A., et al. "The positive effects of yerba maté (Ilex paraguariensis) in obesity." Nutrients. 2015 Jan; 7(2): 730-50.
Lima Nda, S., et al. "Effects of Ilex paraguariensis (yerba mate) treatment on leptin resistance and inflammatory parameters in obese rats primed by early weaning." Life Sci. 2014 Oct; 115(1-2): 29-35.
de Meneses Fujii, T., et al. "Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguariensis) modulates NF-kappaB pathway and AKT expression in the liver of rats fed on a high-fat diet." Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 2014 Dec; 65(8): 967-76.
Bravo, L., et al. "Hypocholesterolaemic and antioxidant effects of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) in high-cholesterol fed rats." Fitoterapia. 2014 Jan; 92: 219-29.
Lima Nda, S., et al. "Ilex paraguariensis (yerba mate) improves endocrine and metabolic disorders in obese rats primed by early weaning." Eur. J. Nutr. 2014 Feb; 53(1): 73-82.
Carmo, L., et al. "The effects of yerba maté (Ilex paraguariensis) consumption on IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10 production by bone marrow cells in wistar rats fed a high-fat diet." Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res. 2013; 83(1): 26-35.
Gao, H., et al. "Effects of Yerba Mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) on vascular endothelial function and liver lipoprotein receptor gene expression in hyperlipidemic rats." Fitoterapia. 2013 Jan; 84: 264-72.
Borges, M., et al. "The effect of mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) on metabolic and inflammatory parameters in high-fat diet-fed Wistar rats." Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 2013 Aug; 64(5): 561-9.
Arçari, D., et al. "The in vitro and in vivo effects of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) extract on adipogenesis." Food Chem. 2013 Nov; 141(2): 809-15.
Arçari, D., et al. "Modulatory effects of yerba maté (Ilex paraguariensis) on the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway." Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2013 Oct; 57(10): 1882-5.
Gao, H., et al. "Beneficial effects of Yerba Mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) on hyperlipidemia in high-fat-fed hamsters." Exp. Gerontol. 2013 Jun; 48(6): 572-8.
Balzan, S., et al. "Lipid-lowering effects of standardized extracts of Ilex paraguariensis in high-fat-diet rats." Fitoterapia. 2013 Apr; 86: 115-22.
Resende, P., et al. "The activity of mate saponins (Ilex paraguariensis) in intra-abdominal and epididymal fat, and glucose oxidation in male Wistar rats." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Dec; 144(3): 735-40.
Pimentel, G., et al. "Yerba mate extract (Ilex paraguariensis) attenuates both central and peripheral inflammatory effects of diet-induced obesity in rats." J. Nutr. Biochem. 2012 Jul 25.
Boaventura, B., et al. "Association of mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) intake and dietary intervention and effects on oxidative stress biomarkers of dyslipidemic subjects." Nutrition. 2012 Jun; 28(6): 657-64.
Gosmann, G., et al. "Phenolic compounds from maté (Ilex paraguariensis) inhibit adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes." Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 2012 Jun; 67(2): 156-61.
Kang, Y., et al. "Anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects of Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguariensis) in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet." Lab Anim Res. 2012 Mar; 28(1): 23-9.
Hussein, G., et al. "Mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) promotes satiety and body weight lowering in mice: involvement of glucagon-like peptide-1." Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2011; 34(12): 1849-55.
Klein, G., et al. "Mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) improves glycemic and lipid profiles of type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes individuals: a pilot study." J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 2011 Oct; 30(5): 320-32.
Huessein, G., et al. "Protective and ameliorative effects of maté (Ilex paraguariensis) on metabolic syndrome in TSOD mice." Phytomedicine. 2011 Dec; 19(1): 88-97.
Silva, R., et al. "The effect of aqueous extract of gross and commercial yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) on intra-abdominal and epididymal fat and glucose levels in male Wistar rats." Fitoterapia. 2011 Sep; 82(6): 818-26
Arcari, D., et al. "Anti-inflammatory effects of yerba maté extract (Ilex paraguariensis) ameliorate insulin resistance in mice with high fat diet-induced obesity." Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 2011 Mar; 335(2): 110-5.
Bracesco, N., et al. "Recent advances on Ilex paraguariensis research: minireview." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Jul; 136(3): 378-84.
de Moralis, E., et al. "Consumption of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis ) improves serum lipid parameters in healthy dyslipidemic subjects and provides an additional LDL-cholesterol reduction in individuals on statin therapy." J. Agric. Food Chem. 2009 Sep; 57(18): 8316-24.
Martins, F., et al. "Maté tea inhibits in vitro pancreatic lipase activity and has hypolipidemic effect on high-fat diet-induced obese mice." Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010 Jan; 18(1): 42-7.
Arcari, D., et al. "Antiobesity effects of yerba maté extract (Ilex paraguariensis) in high-fat diet-induced obese mice." Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009 Dec; 17(12): 2127-33.
Pang, J., et al. "Ilex paraguariensis extract ameliorates obesity induced by high-fat diet: potential role of AMPK in the visceral adipose tissue." Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 2008 Aug ; 476(2): 178-85.
Dickel, M., et al. "Plants popularly used for losing weight purposes in Porto Alegre, South Brazil." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Jan; 109(1): 60-71.
Mosimann, A., et al. "Aqueous extract of Ilex paraguariensis attenuates the progression of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits." Biofactors. 2006; 26(1): 59-70.
Pittler, M., "Adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction: systematic review." Obes. Rev. 2005 May; 6(2): 93-111.
Paganini Stein, F., et al. "Vascular responses to extractable fractions of Ilex paraguariensis in rats fed standard and high-cholesterol diets." Biol. Res. Nurs. 2005 Oct; 7(2): 146-56.
Collomp, K., et al. "Effects of salbutamol and caffeine ingestion on exercise metabolism and performance." Int. J. Sports Med. 2002; 23(8): 549-54.
Anderson, T., et al. "Weight loss and delayed gastric emptying following a South American herbal preparation in overweight patients." J. Hum. Nutr. Diet. 2001; 14(3): 243-50.
Martinet, A., et al. "Thermogenic effects of commercially available plant preparations aimed at treating human obesity." Phytomedicine. 1999; 6(4): 231-38.
Vassourinha (Scoparia dulcis)
Vassourinha has also shown to be an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma which is implicated in the cause and/or progression of Metabolic Syndrome. Vassourinha’s beneficial actions for treating diabetes, high cholesterol and metabolic syndrome are attributed to various plant chemicals including scoparic acid A, scoparic acid D, scutellarein, apigenin, luteolin, coixol, betulinic acid, and glutinol.
Kim, K., et al."Betulinic acid inhibits high-fat diet-induced obesity and improves energy balance by activating AMPK." Nutr. Metab. Cardiovasc. Dis. 2019 Jan 8.
Ajala-Lawal R., "Betulinic acid improves insulin sensitivity, hyperglycemia, inflammation and oxidative stress in metabolic syndrome rats via PI3K/Akt pathways." Arch. Physiol. Biochem. 2018 Oct 5: 1-9.
Ahangarpour, A., The effect of betulinic acid on leptin, adiponectin, hepatic enzyme levels and lipid profiles in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic mice." Res. Pharm. Sci. 2018 Apr; 13(2): 142-148.
Ding, H., et al. "New insights into the inhibition mechanism of betulinic acid on α-glucosidase." J. Agric. Food Chem. 2018 Jul; 66(27): 7065-7075.
Ali, A., et al. "Sensitive quantification of coixol, a potent insulin secretagogue, in Scoparia dulcis extract using high-performance liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry and UV detection." Biomed. Chromatogr. 2017 Oct; 31(10).
Pamunuwa, G., et al. "Antidiabetic properties, bioactive constituents, and other therapeutic effects of Scoparia dulcis." Evid Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2016; 2016: 8243215. Erratum in: Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2017; 2017: 2535014
Senadheera, S., et al. "Anti-hyperglycaemic effects of herbal porridge made of Scoparia dulcis leaf extract in diabetics - a randomized crossover clinical trial." BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 2015 Nov; 15: 410.
Sharma, K., et al. "Potent insulin secretagogue from Scoparia dulcis Linn of Nepalese origin." Phytother. Res. 2015 Oct; 29(10): 1672-5.
Perumal, P., et al. "Therapeutic potency of saponin rich aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis L. in alloxan induced diabetes in rats." Ayu. 2014 Apr; 35(2): 211-7.
Liu, Q., et al. "Bioactive diterpenoids and flavonoids from the aerial parts of Scoparia dulcis." J. Nat. Prod. 2014 Jul; 77(7): 1594-600.
Senadheera, S., et al. "Anti-diabetic properties of rice-based herbal porridges in diabetic Wistar rats." Phytother Res. 2014 Oct; 28(10): 1567-72.
Mishra, M., et al. "Antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of Scoparia dulcis Linn." Indian J. Pharm. Sci. 2013 Sep; 75(5): 610-4.
Beh, J., et al. "SDF7, a group of Scoparia dulcis Linn. derived flavonoid compounds, stimulates glucose uptake and regulates adipocytokines in 3T3-F442a adipocytes." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2013 Oct; 150(1): 339-52.
Attanayake, A., et al. "Study of antihyperglycaemic activity of medicinal plant extracts in alloxan induced diabetic rats." Anc. Sci. Life. 2013 Apr; 32(4): 193-8.
Anuruddhika, S., et al. "Green leafy porridges: how good are they in controlling glycaemic response? Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 2013 Mar; 64(2): 169-74.
Beh, J., et al. "Scoparia dulcis (SDF7) endowed with glucose uptake properties on L6 myotubes compared insulin." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2010 May; 129(1): 23-33.
Latha, M., et al. "Antidiabetic effects of scoparic acid D isolated from Scoparia dulcis in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes." Nat. Prod. Res. 2009; 23(16): 1528-40.
Lans, C. A. "Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus." J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomedicine. 2006 Oct; 2: 45.
Pari, L., et al. "Antihyperlipidemic effect of Scoparia dulcis (sweet broomweed) in streptozotocin diabetic rats." J. Med. Food. 2006 Spring; 9(1): 102-7.
Pari, L., et al. "Antidiabetic effect of Scoparia dulcis: effect on lipid peroxidation in streptozotocin diabetes." Gen. Physiol. Biophys. 2005 Mar; 24(1): 13-26.
Latha, M., et al. "Effect of an aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis on plasma and tissue glycoproteins in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats." Pharmazie. 2005; 60(2): 151-4.
Pari, L., et al. "Effect of Scoparia dulcis (Sweet Broomweed) plant extract on plasma antioxidants in streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetes in male albino Wistar rats." Pharmazie. 2004; 59(7): 557-60.
Pari, L., et al. "Effect of Scoparia dulcis extract on insulin receptors in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats: studies on insulin binding to erythrocytes." J. Basic Clin. Physiol. Pharmacol. 2004; 15(3-4): 223-40.
Latha, M., et al. "Scoparia dulcis, a traditional antidiabetic plant, protects against streptozotocin induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in vitro and in vivo." J. Biochem. Mol. Toxicol. 2004; 18(5): 261-72.
Latha, M., et al. "Insulin-secretagogue activity and cytoprotective role of the traditional antidiabetic plant Scoparia dulcis (Sweet Broomweed)." Life Sci. 2004 Sep; 75(16): 2003-14.
Latha, M., et al. "Effect of an aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis on blood glucose, plasma insulin and some polyol pathway enzymes in experimental rat diabetes." Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 2004; 37(4): 577-86.
Latha, M., et al. "Modulatory effect of Scoparia dulcis in oxidative stress-induced lipid peroxidation in streptozotocin diabetic rats." J. Med. Food. 2003 Winter; 6(4): 379-86.
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Sarsaparilla (Smilax sp)
The majority of sarsaparilla's pharmacological properties and actions have been attributed to novel and known steroids and saponins. The saponins have been reported to facilitate the body's absorption of other drugs and phytochemicals, which accounts for its history of use in herbal formulas as an agent for bioavailability and to enhance the power and effect of other herbs.
Yang, L., et al. "Dietary supplement of Smilax china L. ethanol extract alleviates the lipid accumulation by activating AMPK pathways in high-fat diet fed mice." Nutr. Metab.. 2019 Jan 21; 16:6.
Pérez-Nájera, V., et al. "Smilax aristolochiifolia root extract and its compounds chlorogenic acid and astilbin inhibit the activity of α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes." Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2018 Jun; 2018: 6247306.
Turdu, G., et al. "Plant dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors as antidiabetic agents: a brief review." Future Med Chem. 2018 May; 10(10): 1229-1239.
Liu, Y., et al. "Protective effects of sarsasapogenin against early stage of diabetic nephropathy in rats." Phytother. Res. 2018 Aug; 32(8): 1574-1582.
Lee H., et al. "Chemical constituents of Smilax china L. stems and their inhibitory activities against glycation, aldose reductase, α-glucosidase, and lipase." Molecules. 2017 Mar 11; 22(3).
Kang, Y., et al. "Antiobesity effects of the water-soluble fraction of the ethanol extract of Smilax china L. leaf in 3T3-L1 adipocytes." Nutr. Res. Pract. 2015 Dec; 9(6): 606-12.
Pereira, F., et al. "Antihyperlipidemic and antihyperglycemic effects of the Brazilian salsaparrilhas Smilax brasiliensis Spreng. (Smilacaceae) and Herreria salsaparrilha Mart. (Agavaceae) in mice treated with a high-refined-carbohydrate containing diet." Food Res. Int. 2015 Oct; 76(Pt 3): 366-372.
Sang, H., et al. "The protective effect of Smilax glabra extract on advanced glycation end products-induced endothelial dysfunction in HUVECs via RAGE-ERK1/2-NF-κB pathway. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2014 Aug; 155(1): 785-95.